Adoption of no-cost & low-cost technologies of animal husbandry by tribal dairy farmwomen
“ “Just as a bird couldn’t fly with its one wing only, Just as a bird couldn’t fly with its one wing only,
a nation could not march forward if thea nation could not march forward if the
women are left behind. women are left behind.
important roleimportant role
In the advancement of civilization In the advancement of civilization” ”
India has a tradition of women playingIndia has a tradition of women playing
Rural women, who constitute about 50 per cent of total rural
population, play an active role in all spheres of economic life and contribute richly
towards national income. The women play a key role in dairy husbandry occupation
by doing more than 60 per cent animal husbandry operations like feeding, watering,
milking, cleaning, sale of milk etc. About 75 per cent rural women are engaged in
animal husbandry occupation. That proves efficiency of animal husbandry sector for
doorstep availability of domestic employment and there by employment of women
Animal husbandry is the most important economic activity in rural
areas of India next to agriculture contributing significantly towards employment and
income generation for rural households, particularly the landless labourers, small and
marginal farmers. India has vast resources of livestock, ranks first in cattle
(185 million) and buffalo (98 million) population which accounted 16 per cent of
world’s cattle and 60 per cent of world buffalo population (Anonymous, 2007). India
has now emerged as the largest global producer of milk with a record production level
of 108.5 million tones out of 690 million tones of world milk production. Presently,
14 millions farmers are engaged in dairying activity and livestock sector contribute 26
per cent of agriculture GDP (Economic Survey, 2009-2010).The success of India’s
dairy industry was possible because it created a structure (AMUL PATTERN) that
gives our farmers to control over the resources they create.
However on the other side of this rosy picture of Indian dairy
development, productivity of Indian dairy animal remains substantially low compared
to potential and world average. Further, the milk quality is far below the WTO
standards. A wide variation in milk productivity per animal as against the world
average of 2030kg per lactation and highest of 9000kg in Israel is seen. In India, at
one end there are institutional farms with improved management with an average
yield of 2000-3000 liters whereas at the other end there are landless labourers in
villages that reared animals, their output is just 400-500 liters per lactation (Dairy
India, 1997). Besides the poor genetic potential and poor economic status, this low
productivity could largely be attributed to unavailability of scientific knowledge
regarding four important pillars of dairy farming- i.e. breeding, feeding, health care &
excellent management. At the same time, it is distressing to note that pace of dairy
development is not uniform in different parts of country and states. There is a serious
imbalance observed with respect to production as well as per capita availability and
consumption of milk (e.g. hilly, costal, desert, tribal areas and north eastern states).
It is very important to understand that the increase in the milk production is estimated
to be around three per cent per annum only, while the demand has increased around
four to five per cent per annum due to increase in the purchasing power of the
consumers and increase in population. Consequently the gap between milk production
and demand is widening, resulting in lower increase in milk availability and higher
increase in cost of milk, which necessitates planned efforts to increase productivity
and production of milch animals.
Higher milk production can be achieved by proper implementation of
management practices. Most of the animal husbandry practices which significantly
influence the performance of cattle do not require much capital and special skill but
only timely and careful utilization of management knowledge and health care is
The recent advances in animal husbandry have demonstrated great
potential for maximization of milk productivity through the development of new
technology by research scientists in various dairy farming practices viz., breeding,
feeding, housing, and health care, calf rearing, clean milk production, and general
management etc. Many of these technologies (no-cost technology) do not involve any
financial investment on the part of dairy farmers whereas some of these technologies
(low-cost technology) may involve a little– low finance on the part of farmers. The
knowledge and adoption of such no-cost and low-cost dairy farming technologies by
dairy farmwomen has great scope for improving productivity, profitability and
sustainability of dairy farming enterprise.
Gujarat occupies a place of pride in the dairy development map of
India due to co-operative dairy development in many part of state on ‘AMUL
PATTERN’. Gujarat state contributes almost 7.47 per cent of the national milk
production and stood on fifth rank in the country. The total livestock population of
Gujarat state is 23.80 million. There were about 8.77 million buffaloes with 5.14
million breedable buffaloes, followed by 7.98 million cattle population with 3.76
million breedable cows (indigenous and crossbred) in Gujarat state in year the 2007,
(Anonymous, 2007). During the year 2008-09, total milk production of India reached
upto 108.5 million tones with per capita availability of 258 gms/day. Gujarat had
produced 8.39 million tones of milk with per capita availability of 403 gms/day,
during 2008-09 (Anonymous, 2009).
There are 427 main tribal communities in India and they are
inhabitating almost all the states and Union Territories (Elwin, 1963). Tribal people
are considered as socio-economically poor, having limited resources for livelihood
and found closely intertwined with forest. Dairy farming is an integral part of this
tribal economy. Large numbers of development programmes have been introduced in
the field of agriculture and dairy for the betterment of the tribal communities.
Vadodara district has majority of tribal population in five talukas-Chhotaudepur,
Jetpur-Pavi, Naswadi, Kavant and Sankheda. In tribal area of Vadodara district, State
Animal Husbandry Department, Vadodara District Co-operative Milk Producer’s
Union Ltd (Baroda Dairy) and their affiliated village level milk co-operative societies
have demonstrated their impact in the development of animal husbandry and income
generation. However, production level and adoption of scientifically recommended
no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry have been far from
satisfactory. In spite of this, we yet to make a mark in tribal dairy farmwomen in
terms of their knowledge, skill and attitude for better adoption of various no-cost and
low cost technology of animal husbandry.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM :
Rearing of dairy animals is highly women-oriented as 60-80 per cent
of all activities related to it are carried out by women. Dairy farming has played
crucial role in improving socio-economic status of tribal dairy farmwomen.
It has become essential to know about personal, social, economical
communicational and psychological characteristics of tribal dairy farmwomen and
their associations with adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal
husbandry to make effective livestock extension programmes which directly or
indirectly affect their development. It is very essential to find out the factors
responsible for adoption of animal husbandry technologies by tribal dairy farmwomen
even when these technologies are no-cost or low-cost to look for ways to enhance
productivity and production of dairy animals. Keeping this fact in mind, it is
considered worthwhile to carry out an investigation: ‘Adoption of no-cost and low-
cost technologies of animal husbandry by tribal dairy farmwomen’ in tribal areas
of Vadodara district. This study was proposed to evaluate whether no-cost and low-
cost dairy husbandry technologies have been adopted by dairy farmwomen or not?
So, this study was aimed to evaluate whether the knowledge of such no-cost and
low-cost dairy husbandry technologies have percolated to remote tribal areas or not ?
Keeping above facts in mind, an investigation proposed with following objectives.
1. To study the profile of tribal dairy farmwomen
2. To know the extent of knowledge of tribal dairy farmwomen regarding
no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry
3. To determine the extent of adoption of no-cost and low-cost
technologies of animal husbandry by tribal dairy farmwomen
4. To ascertain relationship between profile of tribal dairy farmwomen and
extent of adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry
by tribal dairy farmwomen
5. To study the constraints faced by the tribal dairy farmwomen in
adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry.
6. To seek suggestions from tribal dairy farmwomen to overcome the problems
faced by them in adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The extent of adoption of no-cost and low-cost technology of animal
husbandry by dairy farmwomen is presumed to be influenced by the socio-personal,
economic, communicational and psychological characteristics of an individual tribal
dairy farmwomen, which will help the extension personnel to approach the right type
of dairy farmwomen. Further, the nature of such relationship will also be of much
help to the programme planners and extension functionaries in their work for
motivating dairy farmwomen to adopt very important no-cost and low-cost animal
husbandry technologies for economic and profitable dairy farming. The study will
also guide them to revise suitable strategies and to modify the extension education
approaches to communicate useful no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal
husbandry among dairy farmwomen. The knowledge regarding difficulties expressed
by the dairy farmwomen in adoption of no- cost and low-cost technology of animal
husbandry for dairy farming will serves as a guideline in modifying future extension
FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS :
Based on the review of literature and specific objectives of this study,
the following null hypothesis is formulated for statistical testing:
H0 : “There is no relationship between socio-personal, economical,
communicational and psychological variables of dairy farmwomen and extent of
adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry.”
1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
The area of study will be confined to only five tribal talukas of Vadodara district.
The study will be confined to only 150 dairy farmwomen randomly selected from 15
villages of five tribal talukas of Vadodara district.
3 Some of the selected characteristics of dairy farmwomen will be studied.
The study will be limited to important no-cost and low-cost technologies of
animal husbandry practices in dairy farming.
The findings of study will be based on verbal opinion of the dairy farmwomen and
their ability to recollect and express the known information.