ADOPTION OF NO-COST AND LOW-COST TECHNOLOGIES
OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY BY TRIBAL DAIRY FARMWOMEN
Name of student
Prajapati Jayanti V.
Dr. P. M. Bhatt
Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
Anand Agricultural University
Animal husbandry is the most important economic activity in rural
areas of India next to agriculture contributing significantly towards employment and
income generation for rural household, particularly the landless labourers, small and
marginal farmers. Presently, 14 millions farmers are engaged in dairying activity and
livestock sector contribute 26 per cent of agriculture GDP. The women play a key role
in dairy husbandry occupation.
In spite of the fact that our country has largest milch animal population
in the world, productivity of Indian dairy animal remains substantially low compared
to potential and world average. Besides the poor genetic potential and poor economic
status, this low productivity could largely be attributed to low level of knowledge and
adoption of scientific technologies regarding four important pillars of dairy farming-
i.e. breeding, feeding, health care & excellent management. Many of these
technologies are mostly cost effective, either no-cost technologies or low-cost
technologies. The knowledge and adoption of such no-cost and low-cost animal
husbandry technologies by dairy farmwomen have great scope for improving
productivity, profitability and sustainability of dairy farming enterprise, especially for
resource poor and socio-economically deprived tribal dairy farmwomen. The adoption
of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry have some association with
their socio-personal, economic, communicational and psychological characteristics. If
this association is ascertained and the actual situation at grass-root level is understood,
it may be possible to draw out certain inferences about adoption of no-cost and low-
cost technologies of animal husbandry by tribal dairy farmwomen.
So far, very limited efforts have been made to determine the existing
level of adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry by dairy
farmwomen in tribal area of Gujarat state. Therefore, a study on “Adoption of no-
cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry by tribal dairy farmwomen
of Vadodara District of Gujarat” was undertaken with following objectives:
1. To study the profile of tribal dairy farmwomen
2. To know the extent of knowledge of tribal dairy farmwomen regarding
no- cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry
3. To determine the extent of adoption of no-cost and low-cost
technologies of animal husbandry by tribal dairy farmwomen
4. To ascertain relationship between profile of tribal dairy farmwomen and
extent of adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal
husbandry by tribal dairy farmwomen
5. To study the constraints faced by the tribal dairy farmwomen in
adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry
6. To seek suggestions from tribal dairy farmwomen to overcome the problems
faced by them in adoption of no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal
The present study was conducted in five tribal talukas of Vadodara
district in Gujarat State. Important and relevant no-cost and low-cost animal
husbandry technologies in six major areas of practices i.e. (1) Housing and general
management (2) Feeding and watering (3) Calf rearing (4) Breeding (5) Clean milk
production and (6) Health care were selected under study through expert opinion.
With the help of random sampling method three villages were selected from each
selected tribal taluka. From each selected village, ten tribal dairy women members
were randomly selected which constituted a total sample size of 150 women
The data were collected with the help of well structured pre-tested
interview schedule incorporating all items pertaining to specific objective of the study.
The independent variables were measured with the help of appropriate scales used by
other researcher with some modifications. The dependent variable was measured by
developing adoption index with the help of structural schedule developed by
researcher. The collected data were compiled, tabulated and analyzed to get proper
answer for the specific objectives of the study with the help of various statistical tools
to test the hypotheses under study. The statistical tools such as percentage, mean,
standard deviation, co-efficient of correlation, multiple regression and path co-
efficient analysis were used. The important findings of the study are summarized as
1 Almost half (51.33 per cent) of the dairy farmwomen were found in the middle
2 About 56.67 per cent of tribal dairy farmwomen had primary to secondary
level of education ,whereas 38.00 per cent of them were illiterate.
3 Majority (62.00 per cent) of dairy farmwomen had medium level of
experience in dairy farming.
4 More than four-fifth (82.00 per cent) of dairy farmwomen were found
in medium size of family.
5 Majority (90.66 per cent) of dairy farmwomen had small to marginal land
6 A great majority (93.33 per cent) of dairy farmwomen had medium to small
7 More than four-fifth (84.00per cent) of the dairy farmwomen were found
with medium level of (Rs. 50,001 to 1,50,000) annual income.
8 An exactly three-fifth (60.00 per cent) of the tribal dairy farmwomen had
medium level of contact with different extension agencies.
9 Nearly two-third (65.33 per cent) of tribal dairy farmwomen had medium
exposure to mass media.
10 More than two-third (70 per cent) of dairy farmwomen had medium
11 Majority (64.67 per cent) of tribal dairy farmwomen had medium
12 Slightly more than four-fifth ( 82.00 per cent ) of the dairy farmwomen
had medium economic motivation.
13 Almost two-third (67.33 per cent) of the tribal dairy farmwomen had medium
level of overall knowledge about selected no-cost and low-cost technologies
of animal husbandry.
14 Slightly more than two-third (67.67 per cent) of the tribal dairy farmwomen
had medium level of adoption about no-cost and low-cost technologies
of animal husbandry.
15 The independent variables viz: size of family, land holding, herd size,
annual income, extension contact, mass media exposure, innovation
proneness, scientific orientation, economic motivation, and knowledge
had positive and highly significant correlation with adoption of tribal dairy
farmwomen, whereas experience in dairy farming had negative but
significant correlation with adoption. Age of dairy farmwomen had
negative and non-significant correlation with adoption, whereas education
of dairy farmwomen had positive and non-significant correlation with
adoption regarding no-cost and low-cost technology of animal husbandry .
16 Only three variables viz. knowledge level of no-cost and low-cost
technologies of animal husbandry , annual income and economic
motivation had exerted significant effect on adoption and all these three
variables accounted for 92.40 per cent of total variation in adoption of no-
cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry by tribal dairy
17 Knowledge of the tribal dairy farmwomen regarding no-cost and
low-cost technologies of animal husbandry was the key variable in
exerting considerable direct and substantial effect on extent of adoption of
no-cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry. Extension contact,
innovation proneness, scientific orientation and economic motivation were
the major trait in determination of adoption level through positive indirect
effect where as experience of tribal dairy farmwomen was only character
which influenced negatively through indirect and substantial effect.
18 Unavailability of separate place for isolation of sick animal,
scarcity of land for fodder cultivation, unavailability of grazing
pasture land, lack of knowledge about urea treatment of poor
quality roughages, high cost of scientific housing, poor knowledge
and difficulty in maintaining records due to illiteracy, high cost of milch
animals, high cost of medicine and treatment, non-availability of
green fodder throughout the year, low level of education, unavailability
of space/land for providing scientific housing to dairy animals, non-
availability of timely AI facility at village level and non-availability of
reliable source for cattle purchasing were the major constraints faced
by tribal dairy farmwomen in adoption of no- cost and low-cost
technologies of animal husbandry.
19 As regarding suggestions, loan and subsidy should be made for
construction of scientific housing for milch animals and purchase of
round wheeled chaff cutter, provide loan facilities at reduced rate
and organized institutional support for purchase of high producing
milch animal, balanced cattle feed should be made available at
village level and supplied at subsidized rate , planned institutional
convergence efforts should be made for more fodder production
and storage facility, so as to ensure round the year availability of
green and dry fodder, regular practical oriented training campaign
for tribal dairy farmwomen regarding improved animal husbandry
practices with special emphasis on clean milk practice, calf
rearing , deworming and mineral mixture feeding and veterinary
doctor services should be made available regularly at every village
level were the major suggestions offered by dairy farmwomen
to overcome the constraints faced by tribal dairy farmwomen in adoption
of no- cost and low-cost technologies of animal husbandry.