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Estimación de la adiposidad a partir del índice cintura talla: ecuaciones de predicción aplicables en población infantil española

Nutrición Clínica y Dietética Hospitalaria 01/2011; 31:45-51.

ABSTRACT Introducción: El índice cintura-talla (ICT) es fácil de medir, estable durante el crecimiento y está relacionado con marcadores cardiometabólicos en la infancia y adolescencia. Refleja los depósitos de grasa abdominal y es interesante conocer su relación con la adiposidad total y el porcentaje de grasa.

Objetivo: Analizar la asociación entre el ICT y la grasa corporal y desarrollar ecuaciones predictivas de la adiposidad que simplifiquen la diagnosis del sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil.

Material y Métodos: Se han analizado 2319 escolares de ambos sexos entre 6 y 14 años. Se midió el peso (kg), la talla (cm), el perímetro de la cintura (cm) y los pliegues adiposos del bíceps, tríceps, subescapular y suprailíaco (mm). Se calcularon: el índice cintura-talla (ICT) el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y el porcentaje de grasa (% G) por el método de Siri. Los sujetos fueron clasificados en la categoría de normopeso, sobrepeso u obesidad de acuerdo a los estándares de Marrodán et al., evaluando mediante ANOVA las diferencias de ICT entre las tres categorías nutricionales. Se efectuó un análisis de correlación y regresión tomando el ICT como variable predictora de la suma de pliegues y del % G. Se empleó una prueba de T de Student para comparar los variables originales de adiposidad y las predichas por el modelo.

Resultados: El ICT difiere significativamente (p< 0,001) en función de la categoría nutricional. Este índice se correlacionó significativamente (p<0,001) con todos los indicadores de adiposidad aunque los coeficientes “r” fueron más elevados para el contraste con la suma de pliegues (0,823 envarones; 0,821 en mujeres) y el % G (0,811 en varones; 0,793 en mujeres) que con el IMC (0,690 en varones; 0,721 en mujeres). Los valores promedio estimados por el modelo de regresión subestimaron la suma de pliegues ( 0,91 mm en varones; 1,48 mm en mujeres) y resultaron levemente superiores a los de partida en el caso del % G (0,14 mm en varones; 0,31 mm en mujeres). Para la adiposidad relativa, no existen diferencias significativas entre la expresión de Siri y las ecuaciones desarrolladas en el presente trabajo:
Varones: % G= 106,50 x ICT- 28,36 Mujeres: %G = 89,73 x ICT -15,40

Conclusiones: El índice de cintura-talla (ICT) resulta eficaz para predecir la adiposidad relativa entre los 6 y 14 años. Las ecuaciones desarrolladas contribuyen a simplificar el diagnóstico del sobrepeso y la obesidad en edad pediátrica.

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