Breeding, embryonic development and salinity tolerance of Skunk clownfish Amphiprion akallopisos

Journal of King Saud University – Science 01/2011; DOI: 10.1016/j.jksus.2011.03.005

ABSTRACT Breeding and rearing some of the clownfishes most commonly used in the aquarium
trade actually represent an economical and ecological tool for broadening development. Cul-ture of clownfish species in low-saline water is still in its infancy. Salinity of the culture envi-ronment is one of the more relevant parameters affecting fish physiology, modifying food intake and growth performance in many fish species. The objective of this study was to breed skunk clownfish ( Amphiprion akallopisos ) in aquarium condition, document the embryonic development, determine the upper and lower lethal salinities of juveniles, tolerance of five dif-ferent salinities (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ppt) and their effect on the survival rate of larvae. Higher (53–55 ppt) and lower (3–6 ppt) salinities produced loss of appetite and movement, finally leading to mortality in juveniles. In a ninety six hour experiment, larvae showed 100% survival at the salinities of 30 (control) and 35 ppt and 88% survival in 40 ppt salinity and 76% survivals in 20 and 25 ppt. In conclusion juveniles of A. akallopisos exhibit satisfac-tory rates of survival and no signs of stress in high (up to 53 ppt) and low saline (up to 6 ppt) waters. These results demonstrate that using such salinities, which can reduce the incidence of diseases and mortality, does not produce significant physiological alterations in this species. In addition, descriptive studies on embryonic developmen t and mass scale larval rearing were also carried out during the present study.

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    ABSTRACT: Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.
    Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 01/2012; 30(4):528-534. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the changes in the morphometric characteristics and survival rate of clownfish Amphiprion percula larvae with respect to different initial feeding times. The larvae started their initial feeding at 12 hr showed maximum survival (42%) and no survival was observed at 8th day when larvae started initial feeding after 24, 36 and 48 hr. Morphometric parameters such as Total length (TL), Weight (W), Head depth (HD), Body depth (BD) and Eye diameter (ED) were significantly higher in larvae which started their initial feed at 12 hr. The present study thus suggests that the first feeding of the clownfish A. percula larvae can be initiated before 12 hr, for better growth and survival.
    Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 01/2012; 24(1):92-97.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prolactin (PRL) is a key hormone for osmoregulation in fish. Levels of PRL in the pituitary gland and plasma ion composition of clownfish seem to change to regulate their hydromineral balance during adaptation to waters of different salinities. In order to understand osmoregulatory mechanism and its association with growth performance and PRL in fish, the gene encoding PRL and its expression level in cinnamon clownfish Amphiprion melanopus upon acclimation to low salinity was analyzed. RESULTS: The PRL gene of A. melanopus encoded a protein of 212 amino acid residues comprised of a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature protein of 188 amino acids. Analysis of growth performance under different salinities of 34, 25, 15, and 10 ppt indicated that cinnamon clownfish could survive under salinities as low as 10 ppt. A higher rate of growth was observed at the lower salinities as compared to that of 34 ppt. Upon shifting the salinity of the surrounding water from 34 ppt to 15 ppt, the level of the PRL transcripts gradually increased to reach the peak level until 24 h of acclimation at 15 ppt, but decreased back as adaptation continued to 144 h. In contrast, levels of plasma Na+, Cl-, and osmolality decreased at the initial stage (4--8 h) of acclimation at 15 pt but increased back as adaptation continued till 144 h. CONCLUSION: Cinnamon clownfish could survive under salinities as low as 10 ppt. Upon shifting the salinity of the surrounding water from 34 ppt to 15 ppt, the level of the PRL transcripts gradually increased during the initial stage of acclimation but decreased back to the normal level as adaptation continued. An opposite pattern of changes - decrease at the beginning followed by an increase - in the levels of plasma Na+, Cl-, and osmolality was found upon acclimation to low salinity. The results suggest an involvement of PRL in the processes of osmoregulation and homeostasis in A. melanopus.
    Aquatic biosystems. 01/2013; 9(1):1.


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May 27, 2014