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Epidemiologia e desfecho de pacientes cirúrgicos não cardíacos em unidades de terapia intensiva no Brasil / Epidemiology and outcomes of non-cardiac surgical patients in Brazilian intensive care units

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Due to the dramatic medical breakthroughs and an increasingly ageing population, the proportion of patients who are at risk of dying following surgery is increasing over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and the epidemiology of non-cardiac surgical patients admitted to the intensive care unit. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in 21 intensive care units. A total of 885 adult surgical patients admitted to a participating intensive care unit from April to June 2006 were evaluated and 587 patients were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were trauma, cardiac, neurological, gynecologic, obstetric and palliative surgeries. The main outcome measures were postoperative complications and intensive care unit and 90-day mortality rates. RESULTS: Major and urgent surgeries were performed in 66.4 percent and 31.7 percent of the patients, respectively. The intensive care unit mortality rate was 15 percent, and 38 percent of the patients had postoperative complications. The most common complication was infection or sepsis (24.7 percent). Myocardial ischemia was diagnosed in only 1.9 percent of the patients. A total of 94 percent of the patients who died after surgery had co-morbidities at the time of surgery (3.4 ± 2.2). Multiple organ failure was the main cause of death (53 percent). CONCLUSION: Sepsis is the predominant cause of morbidity in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. In this patient population, multiple organ failure prevailed as the most frequent cause of death in the hospital

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