Epidemiologia e desfecho de pacientes cirúrgicos não cardíacos em unidades de terapia intensiva no Brasil / Epidemiology and outcomes of non-cardiac surgical patients in Brazilian intensive care units

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Due to the dramatic medical breakthroughs and an increasingly ageing population, the proportion of patients who are at risk of dying following surgery is increasing over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and the epidemiology of non-cardiac surgical patients admitted to the intensive care unit. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in 21 intensive care units. A total of 885 adult surgical patients admitted to a participating intensive care unit from April to June 2006 were evaluated and 587 patients were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were trauma, cardiac, neurological, gynecologic, obstetric and palliative surgeries. The main outcome measures were postoperative complications and intensive care unit and 90-day mortality rates. RESULTS: Major and urgent surgeries were performed in 66.4 percent and 31.7 percent of the patients, respectively. The intensive care unit mortality rate was 15 percent, and 38 percent of the patients had postoperative complications. The most common complication was infection or sepsis (24.7 percent). Myocardial ischemia was diagnosed in only 1.9 percent of the patients. A total of 94 percent of the patients who died after surgery had co-morbidities at the time of surgery (3.4 ± 2.2). Multiple organ failure was the main cause of death (53 percent). CONCLUSION: Sepsis is the predominant cause of morbidity in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. In this patient population, multiple organ failure prevailed as the most frequent cause of death in the hospital

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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of deliberate perioperative increase in oxygen delivery on mortality and morbidity in patients who are at high risk of both following surgery. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. A teaching hospital general intensive care unit, London, England. A total of 107 surgical patients, who were assessed as high risk from previously identified criteria, were studied during an 18-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 54) that received best standard perioperative care, or to a protocol group (n = 53) that, in addition, had deliberate increase of oxygen delivery index to greater than 600 mL/min per square meter by use of dopexamine hydrochloride infusion. Mortality and complications were assessed to 28 days postoperatively. Groups were similar with respect to demographics, admission criteria, operation type, and admission hemodynamic variables. Groups were treated similarly to maintain blood pressure, arterial saturation, hemoglobin concentration, and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure; however, once additional treatment with dopexamine hydrochloride had been given, the protocol group had significantly higher oxygen delivery preoperatively (median, 597 vs 399 mL/min per square meter; P < .001) and postoperatively (P < .001). Results indicate a 75% reduction in mortality (5.7% vs 22.2%; P = .015) and a halving of the mean (+/- SEM) number of complications per patient (0.68 [+/- 0.16] vs 1.35 [+/- 0.20]; P = .008) in patients randomized to the protocol group. Perioperative increase of oxygen delivery with dopexamine hydrochloride significantly reduces mortality and morbidity in high-risk surgical patients.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/1993; 270(22):2699-707. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Goal-directed therapy (GDT) has been shown to improve outcome when commenced before surgery. This requires pre-operative admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). In cardiac surgery, GDT has proved effective when commenced after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post-operative GDT on the incidence of complications and duration of hospital stay in patients undergoing general surgery. This was a randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation. High-risk general surgical patients were allocated to post-operative GDT to attain an oxygen delivery index of 600 ml min(-1) m(-2) or to conventional management. Cardiac output was measured by lithium indicator dilution and pulse power analysis. Patients were followed up for 60 days. Sixty-two patients were randomised to GDT and 60 patients to control treatment. The GDT group received more intravenous colloid (1,907 SD +/- 878 ml versus 1,204 SD +/- 898 ml; p < 0.0001) and dopexamine (55 patients (89%) versus 1 patient (2%); p < 0.0001). Fewer GDT patients developed complications (27 patients (44%) versus 41 patients (68%); p = 0.003, relative risk 0.63; 95% confidence intervals 0.46 to 0.87). The number of complications per patient was also reduced (0.7 SD +/- 0.9 per patient versus 1.5 SD +/- 1.5 per patient; p = 0.002). The median duration of hospital stay in the GDT group was significantly reduced (11 days (IQR 7 to 15) versus 14 days (IQR 11 to 27); p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in mortality (seven patients (11.3%) versus nine patients (15%); p = 0.59). Post-operative GDT is associated with reductions in post-operative complications and duration of hospital stay. The beneficial effects of GDT may be achieved while avoiding the difficulties of pre-operative ICU admission.
    Critical care (London, England) 01/2005; 9(6):R687-93. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about mortality rates following general surgical procedures in the United Kingdom. Deaths are most common in the 'high-risk' surgical population consisting mainly of older patients, with coexisting medical disease, who undergo major surgery. Only limited data are presently available to describe this population. The aim of the present study was to estimate the size of the high-risk general surgical population and to describe the outcome and intensive care unit (ICU) resource use. Data on inpatient general surgical procedures and ICU admissions in 94 National Health Service hospitals between January 1999 and October 2004 were extracted from the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre database and the CHKS database. High-risk surgical procedures were defined prospectively as those for which the mortality rate was 5% or greater. There were 4,117,727 surgical procedures; 2,893,432 were elective (12,704 deaths; 0.44%) and 1,224,295 were emergencies (65,674 deaths; 5.4%). A high-risk population of 513,924 patients was identified (63,340 deaths; 12.3%), which accounted for 83.8% of deaths but for only 12.5% of procedures. This population had a prolonged hospital stay (median, 16 days; interquartile range, 9-29 days). There were 59,424 ICU admissions (11,398 deaths; 19%). Among admissions directly to the ICU following surgery, there were 31,633 elective admissions with 3,199 deaths (10.1%) and 24,764 emergency admissions with 7,084 deaths (28.6%). The ICU stays were short (median, 1.6 days; interquartile range, 0.8-3.7 days) but hospital admissions for those admitted to the ICU were prolonged (median, 16 days; interquartile range, 10-30 days). Among the ICU population, 40.8% of deaths occurred after the initial discharge from the ICU. The highest mortality rate (39%) occurred in the population admitted to the ICU following initial postoperative care on a standard ward. A large high-risk surgical population accounts for 12.5% of surgical procedures but for more than 80% of deaths. Despite high mortality rates, fewer than 15% of these patients are admitted to the ICU.
    Critical care (London, England) 02/2006; 10(3):R81. · 4.72 Impact Factor


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May 21, 2014