The preparation of magnetic nanoparticles for applications in biomedicine. J Phys D Appl Phys 36:R182-R197

Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Journal of Physics D Applied Physics (Impact Factor: 2.72). 07/2003; 36(13):R182-R197. DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/36/13/202


This review is focused on describing state-of-the-art synthetic routes for the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles useful for biomedical applications. In addition to this topic, we have also described in some detail some of the possible applications of magnetic nanoparticles in the field of biomedicine with special emphasis on showing the benefits of using nanoparticles. Finally, we have addressed some relevant findings on the importance of having well-defined synthetic routes to produce materials not only with similar physical features but also with similar crystallochemical characteristics.

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Available from: Maria del Puerto Morales, Feb 18, 2014
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    • "In this framework, advanced synthesis approaches are necessary to achieve a strict control of the structural, morphological and chemical properties of nanomaterials, at the basis of a reproducible manipulation of their unique physical behavior. In the last 20 years, a great number of synthesis methods, such as sol–gel [8] [9], micellar [10], surfactant-assisted high-temperature decomposition techniques [11], and their suitable combinations have been strongly investigated to design new magnetic nanostructured materials [12]. One of the most important drawbacks of these methods is related to the low quantity of materials (100– 300 mg) that can be synthesized at the laboratory scale, representing a limit for large-scale application of nanoparticles (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Manganese spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a solvothermal route based on high temperature decomposition of metal nitrates in the presence of different contents of Triethylene glycol. This simple and low cost method can be applied to prepare large quantities of nanoparticles (tens of grams). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed that nanoparticles with a good crystalline quality were obtained. A good agreement between the average particle size calculated by PXRD and TEM was observed. Fourier-transform infrared spectra showed that polymer molecules have the tendency to form bonds with the surface of ferrite nanoparticles reducing the surface spin disorder, and then enhancing the saturation magnetization (MS). Therefore, much higher MS value (up to ∼91 emu/g at 5 K) was observed compared with that of bare nanoparticles without surfactant. The blocking temperature showed a remarkable shift to lower values with increasing the polymer starting amount. In addition, by increasing the polymer initial content, a more homogeneous size distribution was obtained and the initial strongly interacting superspin glass behavior changed to a weakly interacting superparamagnetic state.
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    • "In this case, the thermal energy overcomes the magnetic anisotropy energy barriers of single domain particles and results in super-paramagnetic behavior [17]. Super-paramagnetic nanoparticles have proven to be ideal for many biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, cancer treatments, biological and chemical sensing and targeted drug delivery [18] [19] [20] [21]. Due to the strong dependence of physical and particularly magnetic properties of metal nanoparticles on their shape and size [22] [23], it is important to control synthesis parameters to achieve desirable morphology and size distribution. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Nickel nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method in the absence of any surface capping agent. The effect of reactants mixing rate and the volume ratio of methanol/ethanol as solvent on the morphology and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles were studied by design of experiment using central composite design. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were utilized to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Size distribution of particles was studied by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique and magnetic properties of produced nanoparticles were investigated by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) apparatus. The results showed that the magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles were more influenced by volume ratio of methanol/ethanol than the reactants mixing rate. Super-paramagnetic nickel nanoparticles with size range between 20 and 50 nm were achieved when solvent was pure methanol and the reactants mixing rate was kept at 70 ml/h. But addition of more ethanol to precursor solvent leads to the formation of larger particles with broader size distribution and weak ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic behavior.
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    • "Nanoparticles are likely to aggregate because of a large surface-tovolume ratio and associated tendency for reduction of their surface energy, long-range magnetostatic interparticle interactions and van der Waals attraction. In a biological medium (blood plasma) they will adsorb proteins (biopolymers) on their surfaces, which additionally results in formation of agglomerates and prevents from achieving the target (affected) organ [10] [11] [12]. Thus a key issue in medical applications is the surface modification of iron oxide particles by creating a very thin layer of biocompatible organic (polymer), inorganic (noble metals) or oxide (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Three series of core–shell maghemite nanoparticles were prepared by a template synthesis using surface active oligoperoxides and further surface initiated grafting functional polymers, forming shell suitable for biomedical applications. Because the polymer shells prevent exchange coupling between maghemite particles, the overall magnetic properties of the samples studied are dominated by dipolar interparticle interactions. Only the sample with the highest polymer fraction displays superparamagnetic relaxation phenomena close to the room temperature. On cooling, the magnetostatic interactions lead to a disordered collective magnetic state that should be described in terms of a spin-glass phenomenology. This collective freezing cannot however be considered as a generic spin-glass phase transition at a well-defined temperature but rather as freezing to a metastable glass-like state of locally correlated structural domains (clusters) without a long-range order. A quasi static spin ordering is only achieved at temperatures much below the freezing temperature.
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