The DSM-III-R impulse control disorders not elsewhere classified: clinical characteristics and relationship to other psychiatric disorders.
ABSTRACT The authors reviewed available studies of DSM-III-R impulse control disorders not elsewhere classified in order to determine the relationship of these disorders to one another and to other psychiatric disorders.
The review focused on the demographic and clinical characteristics, phenomenology, family history, biology, and response to treatment of individuals with intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pathological gambling, pyromania, and trichotillomania. Analysis was restricted to reports which either indicated use of operational diagnostic criteria or provided descriptions of the impulsive behavior detailed enough that patients could be judged as probably meeting the DSM-III-R criteria.
Although different impulse control disorders have different sex ratios, all have similar ages at onset and courses. Studies on phenomenology, family history, and response to treatment suggest that intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pathological gambling, pyromania, and trichotillomania may be related to mood disorders, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and anxiety disorders (especially obsessive-compulsive disorder). Biological studies indicate that intermittent explosive disorder and pyromania may share serotonergic abnormalities similar to those reported in mood disorders.
The impulse control disorders not elsewhere classified appear to be related to one another and to mood, anxiety, and psychoactive substance use disorders. Thus, like major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia nervosa, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, they may represent forms of "affective spectrum disorder."
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ABSTRACT: AimThe objective of the study was to analyse shared commonalities and differences between bulimia nervosa (BN) and certain impulse-related disorders, namely compulsive buying (CB) and gambling disorder (GD), with respect to general psychopathology and personality traits.MethodsA total of 188 female patients [50 BN without comorbid CB (BN−CB), 49 BN with comorbid CB (BN+CB), 53 GD and 36 CB] and 50 comparison non-psychiatric women participated in the current study. All patients were diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth revised edition, the Temperament and Character Inventory—Revised, and other clinical indices.ResultsA positive-growing trend was observed in psychopathology and personality traits across the four clinical groups. Comorbid BN with CB was associated with highest eating psychopathology and social anxiety. On Novelty Seeking, the CB, GD and BN+CB were similar to each other, whereas BN−CB presented a distinct profile. Moreover, the BN+CB group displayed more dysfunctional personality traits and higher general psychopathology. The clinical groups demonstrated overall higher levels of psychopathology compared with the control group.Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that disorders with impulsive traits (CB, GD, BN+CB and BN−CB) follow a linear trend in general psychopathology and specific personality traits, but differ along specific personality and psychopathological dimensions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.European Eating Disorders Review 12/2014; 23(2). DOI:10.1002/erv.2340 · 1.38 Impact Factor
Article: Trichotillomania[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recognized since antiquity, only within the last decade has the subject of trichotillomania provoked any larger clinical interest since it has been included in the DSM-IV-TR (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Text Revision) as a disturbance of the impulse-control disorders not elsewhere classified. Recent data estimates its prevalence at around 3%. Although more common than it was imagined before, clinical and therapeutic aspects are still not well defined. OBJECTIVE: Systematic revision in the literature of several aspects of trichotillomania and its clinical and practical theory. METHOD: The term "trichotillomania", "its epidemiology", "clinical characteristics", "etiology", "comorbidity" and "treatment" were searched in the data bases of Medline/ PubMed, Lilacs, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: Research with no clinical populations suggests that TTM is more common than it was previously suspected. Phenomenological and taxonomical aspects, comorbidity as well as therapeutic possibilities are discussed. CONCLUSION: Despite a growing number of recent studies, clinical and therapeutic aspects remain undefined. Based on this literature's review, directions are suggested concerning diagnosis, treatment and future research.Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica 12/2009; 37(6):261-269. DOI:10.1590/S0101-60832010000600003 · 0.89 Impact Factor