A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 101-118

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Child Abuse & Neglect (Impact Factor: 2.47). 02/1992; 16(1):101-18. DOI: 10.1016/0145-2134(92)90011-F
Source: PubMed


The existing literature on the long-term sequelae of child sexual abuse is reviewed. The evidence suggests that sexual abuse is an important problem with serious long-term sequelae; but the specific effects of sexual abuse, independent of force, threat of force, or such family variables as parental psychopathology, are still to be clarified. Adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse show greater evidence of sexual disturbance or dysfunction, homosexual experiences in adolescence or adulthood, depression, and are more likely than nonabused women to be revictimized. Anxiety, fear, and suicidal ideas and behavior have also been associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse but force and threat of force may be a necessary concomitant. As yet, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a relation between a history of childhood sexual abuse and a postsexual abuse syndrome and multiple or borderline personality disorder. Male victims of child sexual abuse show disturbed adult sexual functioning. The relation between age of onset of abuse and outcome is still equivocal. Greater long-term harm is associated with abuse involving a father or stepfather and abuse involving penetration. Longer duration is associated with greater impact, and the use of force or threat of force is associated with greater harm.

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    • "In the longer term, the support from the non-offending parent has not only been found to reduce the pernicious sequelae of childhood sexual assault (Barker-Collo and Read, 2003; Elliot and Carnes, 2001; Everson et al., 1989; Spaccarelli, 1994; Tyler, 2002; Whiffen and MacIntosh, 2005), but there are also research findings suggesting that this is exacerbated where support is not forthcoming from this parent (Adams-Tucker, 1982; Beitchman et al., 1992; Guelzow et al., 2002; Morrison and Clavenna-Valleroy, 1998). Finally, where the case leads to a prosecution and the child is required to stand as a witness, the support of the nonoffending parent appears to ameliorate the damaging effects of giving testimony (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: This report is presents the protocol and preliminary findings from an outcome evaluation study of the Hampshire and Thames Valley Circles’ Non-Offending Partner Programme. The aims of the programme are to inform, empower and support the non-offending partner of a person who has been convicted of a sexual offence against a child, and to assess the risk posed to, and the non-offending partner’s ability to protect, his/her child(ren). The data presented here relates the findings from the fourteen partners who both completed the programme and the psychometric measures related to the evaluation for the period between February 2012 and August 2014
    Probation Journal 12/2015;
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    • "First-generation researchers have come up with a range of short-and longterm psychological, behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal difficulties associated with CSA and which have been reportedly documented in both male and female participants of college student, clinical, community, and national probability samples (Beitchman et al., 1991, 1992; Briere & Elliot, 1994; Briere & Runtz, 1993; Kendall-Tackett, Williams, & Finkelor, 1993; Polusny & Follette, 1995). It has been reported in such endeavors that CSA has consistently been linked to a range of difficulties, including depression, alexithymia, dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), personality disorders, anxiety and fear, revictimization, and substance abuse (Beitchman et al., 1992; Briere, 1992; Kendall-Tackett et al., 1993). The principal objective of the present study was to investigate the psychosocial effects of CSA in comparison to " normal " non–sexually abused matched control respondents. "

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    • "Yazında, istismar ve ihmal mağduru çocuklar ve ergenlerde sıklıkla depresyon, kaygı, intihar düşüncesi, kendine zarar verme, benlik saygısında azalma, öfke tepkileri, uyku ve yeme bozuklukları, psikosomatik bozukluklar , akademik sorunlar ve kişiler arası zorluklar ortaya çıktığı belirtilmiştir (Crouch ve Milner, 1993; Green, 1993; Hornor, 2010; Kaplan ve ark., 1998; Kendall-Tacket , Williams ve Finkelhor, 1993; Livingston, 1987; Pizarro ve Billick, 1999). Gelişim dönemindeki çocuğun kendilik algısı üzerinde olumsuz etkiler bırakan bu olumsuz yaşantılar, çocukluk dönemini etkilediği kadar yetişkinlik dönemini de etkilemekte ve bireylerin ruhsal ve fiziksel sağlıkları ve işlevsellikleri üzerinde yaşam boyu devam eden birçok olumsuz sonucun ortaya çıkmasına neden olabilmektedir (Beitchman ve ark.,1992; Briere ve Runtz, 1990; Gross ve Keller, 1992; Kendall-Tackett, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Özet Çocukluk çağı istismar yaşantıları, bireylerin kendi, diğerleri ve dünya hakkında olumsuz bilişsel tarzlar ya da şemalar geliştirmelerine neden olabilmektedir. Yaşamın erken dönemlerinde geliştirilen ya da içselleştirilen bu şe-malar, yetişkinlik döneminde çeşitli psikolojik sorunların ortaya çıkmasına zemin hazırlamakta ve psikolojik sağlığı olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, çocukluk çağı istismar yaşantıları ile genel psikolojik sağlık arasındaki ilişkide erken dönem uyum bozucu şemaların aracı rolünü incelemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, 19-26 yaş arası 430 üniversite öğrencisine, Çocukluk Çağı Ruhsal Travma Ölçeği, Young Şema Ölçeği, Kısa Semptom En-vanteri ve bazı demografik bilgileri elde etmek amacıyla Demografik Bilgi Formu uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları, çocukluk çağı istismar yaşantılarının her birinin genel psikolojik sağlıkla ilişkili olduğunu ve bu ilişkiye kopukluk ve zedelenmiş otonomi şema alanlarının tam aracılık ettiğini göstermiştir. İstismar yaşantılarının, türünün ne olduğu fark etmeksizin, kopukluk ve zedelenmiş otonomi şema alanlarında yer alan şemaların gelişmesine neden olabileceği ve bu şema alanlarının yetişkinlik dönemindeki psikolojik sorunlar için önemli bir bilişsel risk faktörü olabileceği görülmüştür. Abstract Experiences of childhood abuse can lead individuals to develop negative cognitive styles or schemas about their self, the others and the world. These schemas, which are developed or internalized in early stages of life, underlie various psychological problems and negatively affect psychological wellbeing in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to examine the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the relationship between childhood abuse experiences and psychological wellbeing. For this purpose, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory and a questionnaire to collect data on their demographic characteristics were administered to 430 university students whose ages are 19-26. The results of the analyses showed that each of childhood abuse experiences were significantly related to psychological wellbeing and schema domains of disconnection/rejection and impaired autonomy fully mediated this relationship. Childhood abuse experiences, regardless of the type of these experiences, may lead to being developed early maladaptive schemas in schema domains of disconnection and impaired autonomy and these schema domains may be significant cognitive risk factor for psychological problems in adulthood.
    Turkish Journal of Psychology 07/2015; 30(75):47-59. · 0.16 Impact Factor
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