A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse.
ABSTRACT The existing literature on the long-term sequelae of child sexual abuse is reviewed. The evidence suggests that sexual abuse is an important problem with serious long-term sequelae; but the specific effects of sexual abuse, independent of force, threat of force, or such family variables as parental psychopathology, are still to be clarified. Adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse show greater evidence of sexual disturbance or dysfunction, homosexual experiences in adolescence or adulthood, depression, and are more likely than nonabused women to be revictimized. Anxiety, fear, and suicidal ideas and behavior have also been associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse but force and threat of force may be a necessary concomitant. As yet, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a relation between a history of childhood sexual abuse and a postsexual abuse syndrome and multiple or borderline personality disorder. Male victims of child sexual abuse show disturbed adult sexual functioning. The relation between age of onset of abuse and outcome is still equivocal. Greater long-term harm is associated with abuse involving a father or stepfather and abuse involving penetration. Longer duration is associated with greater impact, and the use of force or threat of force is associated with greater harm.
Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma 12/2014; 5(4):367-378. DOI:10.1080/19361521.2012.728099
Article: Protecting Children[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, difficulties that women with alcohol problems and victimization experiences might have protecting their children from victimization were investigated. Mothers of children (ages 3-17) were recruited from a longitudinal study of women, alcohol problems, and victimization; women came from alcohol treatment programs, battered women's shelters, mental health clinics, drinking and driving programs, and a random household sample. Hypothetical parenting scenarios were constructed to assess mothers' ability to protect their children from victimization trauma. Women's responses to the scenarios were analyzed thematically and coded. Next, coded responses were analyzed quantitatively to identify significant differences among women with past alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems, current AOD problems, and no AOD problems. Women with current AOD problems were more likely than women with no AOD problems and women with past AOD problems to provide aggressive responses to scenarios. Women with past AOD problems were more likely than their non-addicted counterparts to perceive sexual abuse as a possibility, to attribute responsibility for the problem to the other participant only (seeing no role for their child), and to seek information about what happened from the other participant only. Findings suggest that some interpersonal problem-solving difficulties resolve when women become sober while others persist into recovery, potentially affecting women's ability to protect their children.Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 03/2004; 7(3-4):37-58. DOI:10.1300/J137v07n03_04
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ABSTRACT: Interpretation and comparison of studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in women are difficult because of the wide variations in definitions of this phenomenon represented by the measures used. We used data from a sample of 2,003 women to demonstrate the implications of the use of different measures of CSA on reports of incidence rates and the relation between CSA and depression. We used dichotomous measures, measures that take severity of sexual abuse experience into account, and measures that included or excluded similar‐aged peers as possible perpetrators of CSA. The choice of measure of CSA resulted in up to a 300% difference in incidence rates within this sample. Similarly, measures differed in the strength of their relationships to depression.The Journal of Sex Research 08/1998; 35(3):225-233. DOI:10.1080/00224499809551937 · 2.53 Impact Factor