Oral mycoses in HIV infection.
ABSTRACT Oral mycoses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are becoming increasingly common. Of these, oral candidiasis is by far the most prevalent; fewer than 10 cases of cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and geotrichosis have thus far been reported. Oral candidiasis is one of the earliest premonitory signs of HIV infection and may present as erythematous, pseudomembranous, hyperplastic, or papillary variants, or as angular cheilitis. Cumulative data from 23 surveys (incorporating 3387 adults) suggest that in general, oral candidiasis may develop in one third to half of HIV-seropositive persons. Almost equal numbers of cases manifest with either erythematous or pseudomembranous variants. These and related concepts pertaining to oral mycoses in HIV infection are reviewed.
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ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18 (Suppl. 7): 68–77 AbstractMucosal candidiasis is frequent in immunocompromised HIV-infected highly active antiretroviral (HAART) naive patients or those who have failed therapy. Mucosal candidiasis is a marker of progressive immune deficiency. Because of the frequently marked and prompt immune reconstitution induced by HAART, there is no recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis of mucosal candidiasis in the HIV setting in Europe, although it has been evidenced as effective in the pre-HAART era. Fluconazole remains the first line of therapy for both oropharyngeal candidiasis and oesophageal candidiasis and should be preferred to itraconazole oral solution (or capsules when not available) due to fewer side effects. For patients who still present with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, oral treatment with any other azole should be preferred based on precise Candida species identification and susceptibility testing results in addition to the optimization of HAART when feasible. For vaginal candidiasis, topical therapy is preferred.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 12/2012; 18(s7). DOI:10.1111/1469-0691.12042 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods.Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology 05/2014; 18(2):235-43. DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.140765