Evaluation of growth and survival rate of Artemia parthenogenetica feed with micro algae (Isochrysisand Chlorella vulgaris)and bakery yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
ABSTRACT This study was done to evaluate growth and survival rate of Maharloo lake artemia (Artemia
parthenogenetica) (Bowen & Sterling, 1978) which feed with two species of microalgae (Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella vulgaris) and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with different nutritious ingredients for 15 days. We evaluated them in 3rd, 7th, 11th and 15th days of cultivation period for 4 times. This experiment was done in completely randomized design with 4 treatments (3 treatments and 1 control) and each treatment has 3 replicates. Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii were feed with three different types of food that includes Isochrysis galbana microalgae (T1), Chlorella vulgaris (T2) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (T4). Control had feed with blend of these three matters. After 15 days the highest survival rate was observed in control (84.00) and the lowest one was related to the T4 (59.58) which feed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (p<0.05). The highest growth rate was observed in T4, T3, followed by T1 and T2 respectively. Achievement results showed significant differences between control and other treatments (p<0.05). This study proved that treatments which feed with blend of two micro algae's species and bakery yeast have higher survival ability than the other treatments.
- SourceAvailable from: Patrick Sorgeloos[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were enriched with the antibacterial drug sarafloxacin hydrochloride to determine if levels effective against four pathogenetic strains of Vibrio spp. would accumulate in brine shrimp. Three vibrio strains were Vibrio anguillarum ; the fourth was V. vulnificus . Concentrations of sarafloxacin ranging from 1 to 40% (weight: volume) were incorporated into the oil phase of Super Selco brine shrimp diets. Enriched nauplii and controls were sampled at 2h interval for 24h. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was evaluated with a modification of the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. A microbiological assay with Escherichia coli was used to determine the concentration of sarafloxacin per sample of nauplii. The results indicate that sarafloxacin is rapidly taken up by larval brine shrimp and can be detected at 2h of enrichment by microbiological assay. The efficacy of sarafloxacin appears to depend on the strain of pathogen present.Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 03/1995; 7(1):42-45. · 1.55 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies were carried out to establish the feasibility of incorporating bacteria with the ability to produce inhibitory substances (BPI) into axenic cultures of Isochrysis galbana with the object of using this microalga as a vector for transmitting BPI into cultures of larval bivalves as antagonists of pathogenic bacteria in these cultures. As a first step, the ability of seven strains of BPI to grow in extracellular products of I. galbana was evaluated, with positive results with four of these (334, C33, 11 and 77). Subsequently, the effect of the addition of these strains on the growth of I. galbana was evaluated. Comparison of growth rates of I. galbana with and without the addition of BPI showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). A stable and persistent inhibitory capacity of strain C33 on the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum was also observed. Finally, studies were made on the ingestion of BPI by larvae of Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck 1819). Results demonstrated a significant ingestion of strain 11 (P > 0.05), when it was inoculated directly into the water, and bacterium C33, when delivered in conjunction with the microalga. Upon evaluating incorporation and maintenance of BPI strains 11 and C33 after 5 days of larval culture, we observed the major presence of strain C33 (3 × 102 cfu/larva) compared with strain 11 (90 cfu/larva). The results obtained suggested that it was feasible to use microalgal cultures as vectors for the introduction of bacterial antagonists to bacterial pathogens in molluscan larval culture.Aquaculture Research 12/2001; 30(11‐12):893 - 900. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Artemia franciscana was grown on Isochrysis galbana Green (clone T. Iso) at saturated food concentrations (13 to 20 mg C l−1) for 11 d at 26 to 28 °C, and 34 ppt salinity. Three groups of brine shrimp were used in the feeding experiments: metanauplius III and IV (Group 1), post-metanauplius II and III (Group 2) and post-metanauplius VIII (Group 3), corresponding to 4-, 7- and 11-d-old animals, respectively. The ingestion rate, clearance rate and carbon balance were estimated for these stages at different concentrations of 14C-labeled I. galbana ranging from 0.05 to 30 mg C l−1. The handling time of algae was determined for all three groups. The ingestion rate (I, ng C ind−1 h−1) increased as a function of animal size and food concentration. In all three groups, the ingestion rate increased to a maximum level (I max) and remained constant at food concentrations ≥10 mg C l−1 (saturated food concentrations). The clearance rate (CR, μl ind−1 h−1) increased with increasing food concentration up to a maximum rate (CR max), after which it decreased for even higher food concentrations. The functional response of A. franciscana was most consistent with Holling's Type 3 functional response curve (sigmoidal model), which for the two oldest groups (Group 2 and 3) differed significantly from a Type 2 response (p < 0.05). The gut passage time for the three groups of A. franciscana, feeding on saturated food concentration (20 mg C l−1), varied between 24 and 29 min. As the nauplii developed to pre-adult stage the handling time of the algae increased as a function of animal size. The assimilation rate (ng C ind−1 h−1) in the youngest stages (Group 1 and 2) increased with increasing food concentrations, reaching a maximum level close to 10 mg C l−1. At higher food concentrations the assimilation rate decreased, and the proportions of defecated carbon increased, reaching 60 to 68% in the post-metanauplius stages (Group 3). The assimilation efficiency (%) was high at the lowest food concentrations in all three groups (89 to 64%). At higher concentrations, the assimilation efficiency decreased, reaching 56 to 38% at the highest concentrations.Marine Biology 06/2000; 136(6):1099-1109. · 2.47 Impact Factor
AACL Bioflux, 2011, Volume 4, Issue 4.
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation
International Journal of the Bioflux Society
Evaluation of growth and survival rate of Artemia
parthenogenetica feed with micro algae (Isochrysis
galbana and Chlorella vulgaris) and bakery yeast
Mehdi Dehghan, Hojatollah Jafaryan, Javad Sahandi, Hadi Jamali, Hossein
Adineh, and Moein Faramarzi
Department of Fishery, Gonbad University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural
Resources, Gonbad, Iran, Postal Code: 4971857765.
Corresponding author: M. Dehghan, Mehdi.email@example.com
Abstract. This study was done to evaluate growth and survival rate of Maharloo lake artemia (Artemia
parthenogenetica) (Bowen & Sterling, 1978) which feed with two species of microalgae (Isochrysis
galbana and Chlorella vulgaris) and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with different nutritious
ingredients for 15 days. We evaluated them in 3rd, 7th, 11th and 15th days of cultivation period for 4
times. This experiment was done in completely randomized design with 4 treatments (3 treatments
and 1 control) and each treatment has 3 replicates. Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii were feed with
three different types of food that includes Isochrysis galbana microalgae (T1), Chlorella vulgaris (T2)
and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (T4). Control had feed with blend of these three matters. After
15 days the highest survival rate was observed in control (84.00) and the lowest one was related to
the T4 (59.58) which feed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (p<0.05). The highest growth rate was
observed in T4, T3, followed by T1 and T2 respectively. Achievement results showed significant
differences between control and other treatments (p<0.05). This study proved that treatments which
feed with blend of two micro algae's species and bakery yeast have higher survival ability than the
Key word: Artemia parthenogenetica, Chlorella vulgaris, Isochrysis galbana, Saccharomyces
(Bowen and Sterling, 1978) ﮫ?ﯾﺬﻐﺗ ﻮﻟرﺎﮭﻣ ﮫﭼﺎﯾرد ﺎ?ﺑ هﺪ?ﺷ ﯽﻟﻮﻠ?ﺳ ﮏ?ﺗ ﮏ?ﺒﻠﺟ عﻮ?ﻧ ود
تﺪ?ﻣ ﮫ?ﺑ ،توﺎ?ﻔﺘﻣ ﯽﯾاﺬ?ﻏ شزرا ﺎ?ﺑ15 ?ﯿﺗﺮﺗ ﮫ?ﺑ زور ﺐ )یﺎ?ھزور :3 ،7 ،11 و
ﺪھﺎﺷ رﺎﻤﯿﺗ ﮏﯾ و ﯽﺸﯾﺎﻣزآ رﺎﻤﯿﺗ ﮫﺳ( ﺖﻓﺮﯾﺬﭘ ترﻮﺻ راﺮﮑﺗ ﮫﺳ ﺎﺑ ماﺪﮐ ﺮھو . ﺎﯿﻤﺗرآ ﯽﻠﭘﺎﻧ
ﮏ?ﺒﻠﺟ ، ﺲﯾرﺎ?ﮕﻟو ﻻﺮ?ﻠﮐ)T2
( ﺎﯾﺰﯾوﺮ?ﺳ ﺲ?ﺴﯾﺎﻣورﺎﮐﺎﺳ ﺮ?ﻤﺨﻣ و )T3
ﺖﻓﺮﮔ راﺮﻗ ﮫﯾﺬﻐﺗ درﻮﻣ ﺎﯾﺰﯾوﺮﺳ ﺲﺴﯾﺎﻣورﺎﮐﺎﺳ ﺮﻤﺨﻣ و ﺲﯾرﺎﮕﻟو ﻻﺮﻠﮐ ﮏﺒﻠﺟ ،ﺎﻧﺎﺒﻟﺎﮔ ﺲﯿﺴﯾاﺮﮐوﺰﯾا ﮏﺒﻠﺟ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ ماﻮﺗ ترﻮﺻ ﮫﺑ ﺪھﺎﺷ رﺎﻤﯿﺗ . زا ﺲ?ﭘ15 زور
ﺎﯾﺰﯾوﺮﺳ ﺲﯿﺴﯾﺎﻣ ورﺎﮐﺎﺳ ﺮﻤﺨﻣ ﺎﺑ هﺪﺷ ﮫﯾﺬﻐﺗ ﯽﺸﯾﺎﻣزآ رﺎﻤﯿﺗ ﮫﺑ طﻮﺑﺮﻣ نآ)59.58 ( دﻮﺑP<0/05) .( ﻦﯾا رد
و ﺪھﺎ?ﺷ رﺎ?ﻤﯿﺗ ﻦﯿ?ﺑ یراد ﯽﻨﻌﻣ فﻼﺘﺧا ﮫﮐ داد نﺎﺸﻧ ﺶﯾﺎﻣزآ ﻦﯾا زا هﺪﻣآ ﺖﺳد ﮫﺑ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ
عﻮ?ﻧ ود ﺎ?ﺑ ماﻮ?ﺗ ترﻮ?ﺻ ﮫ?ﺑ هﺪ?ﺷ ﮫ?ﯾﺬﻐﺗ ﺰﻧژﻮﻨﺗرﺎ?ﭘ ﺎ?ﯿﻤﺗرآ یرﺎﮔﺪ?ﻧﺎﻣ و ﺖ?ﺴﯾز ترﺪﻗ ﮫﮐ داد نﺎﺸﻧ ﺶﯾﺎﻣزآ ﻦﯾا ﯽﻠﮐ رﻮط ﮫﺑ
ﯽﺸﯾﺎﻣزآ یﺎھرﺎﻤﯿﺗ ﮫﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﺎﯾﺰﯾوﺮﺳ ﺲﯿﺴﯾﺎﻣورﺎﮐﺎﺳﺮﻤﺨﻣ وT1
ﺖﺳا ﻻﺎﺑ رﺎﯿﺴﺑ.
Introduction. Artemia parthenogenetica, the brine shrimp, are the most widely used
aquaculture live food organism for marine larvae, primarily because they are very
convenient to use and are readily available. The culture of larvae of many species of fish
and crustaceans is highly dependent upon the availability of live food, whether plant or
animal. The newly hatched nauplii of Artemia have generally served as an excellent
source of food for larvae of many species of fish and crustaceans. However, live Artemia
nauplii are obtained through hatching of cysts that are collected from the natural
environment and subject to periodic, unpredictable shortages that cannot supply the
demand. High reproduction ability and easy cultivation in experimental environments has
made Artemia as significant live food (Coutteau 1996). For live food cultivation, experts
advised some methods. These methods are containing an easy instruction for reducing
the price of food preparation. Artemia nauplii are the best available live food that wildly
use as shellfish and marine fish larvae's food (Lavens & Sorgeloos 1986). Artemia can be
play role of vector in bioencapsulation form to transfer different material same as
ﺰﻧژﻮﻨﺗرﺎﭘ ﺎﯿﻤﺗرآ ءﺎﻘﺑ ناﺰﯿﻣ و ﺪﺷر ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ رﻮﻈﻨﻣ ﮫﺑ ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﻦﯾا
Chlorella vulgaris ( و ﺎﯾﺰﯾوﺮﺳ ﺲﯿﺴﯾﺎﻣورﺎﮐﺎﺳ ﺮﻤﺨﻣ
رﺎﻤﯿﺗ رﺎﮭﭼ ﺎﺑ ﯽﻓدﺎﺼﺗ ﻼﻣﺎﮐ حﺮط ﺐﻟﺎﻏ رد ﺶﯾﺎﻣزآ ﻦﯾا)
ﺎ?ﻧﺎﺒﻟﺎﮔ ﺲﯿﺴﯾاﺮﮐوﺰﯾا ﮏﺒﻠﺟ ؛ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ ﺐﯿﺗﺮﺗ ﮫﺑ ﯽﺸﯾﺎﻣزآ رﺎﻤﯿﺗ ﮫﺳ رد ﺎﮑﯿﺘﻧژﻮﻨﺗرﺎﭘ)T1
ﺪھﺎﺷ رﺎﻤﯿﺗ رد ﯽﮔﺪﻨﻣزﺎﺑ ﺪﺻرد ﻦﯾﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ
،ﺪھﺎﺷ رﺎﻤﯿﺗ رد ﺐﯿﺗﺮﺗ ﮫﺑ ﺪﺷر خﺮﻧ ﻦﯾﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ ﺶﯾﺎﻣزآ
ﺖﺷاد دﻮﺟو ﯽﺸﯾﺎﻣP<0/05) .(
ﺲﯾرﺎﮕﻟو ﻻﺮﻠﮐ ،ﺎﻧﺎﺒﻟﺎﮔ ﺲﯿﺴﯾاﺮﮐوﺰﯾا(
)84.00 ( ﻦﯾﺮﺘﻤﮐ و
ﺪﯾدﺮﮔ هﺪھﺎﺸﻣ .
AACL Bioflux, 2011, Volume 4, Issue 4.
nutritious blend (Watanabe et al 1983), antibiotics (Dixon et al 1995) and any type of
vaccines (Campbell et al 1993) to target body. For improvement of nutritional features
using live food especially Artemia is an essential matter. One of the strategies for
improvement of nutritional efficiency is feeding Artemia with microalgae such as
Chaetocerus, Chlorella and Nannochloropsis (Lavens & Sorgeloos 1991) and bakery yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Chlorella vulgaris is rich in vitamin E (Tocopherol) and
vitamin B3 (Niacin) (Vazhappilly & Chen 1998). This microalgae has fatty acids (6.7%)
and protein (43-44%). Isochrysis galbana contains (40-45%) protein and (24-26%) fatty
acids ( Liu & Lin 2001).
Yeast is a live and useful microorganism that can be cultured in different
environments (Gatesoupe et al 2005). Industrial yeasts usually use in aquaculture as
probiotic or as nutritional matters in aquatic nutrition. As an example, we can mention
here the bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Stones & Mills 2004). Last studies
showed that use of bakery yeast can be useful for security responses and improvement
of growth in different aquatic species, especially in Artemia (Siwicki et al 1994; Olivia-
Teles & Goncalves 2001). Use of microalgaes can be improved fatty acid of artemia,
beside use of bakery yeast can be improved PUFA’s in artemia body (Volkman et al 1989;
Vazhappilly & Chen 1998). In this study we have evaluated growth rate and survival rate
of Artemia parthenogenetica that feed with two algae species (Chlorella vulgaris and
Isochrysis galbana) and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
Material and Methods. For micro algal cultivation we used batch growing system. They
were cultured in Artemia Research Center (Uremia-Iran) as indicated in Table 1. At the
end of cultivation they were compressed with centrifuge and then cells were counted with
special lame. Their density was 18 × 106 cell mL-1 (see also Triantaophllidis et al 1998).
Microalgae species and their cultivation features in laboratory in
Walen cultivation environment
The Artemia cysts that used in this study originated from Maharloo Lake (Fars province,
Iran). Their content was encapsulated using chemical way (Sorgeloos et al 1977). They
were placed into conical glass with 1 L capacity. Water of incubation was sea water with
35 ppt salinity. One gram of Artemia parthenogenetica cyst was incubated in a one liter
conical incubator with salinity of 35 ppt, at 26˚C, with strong aeration and illumination
with 2500 lux intensity for 24 hours (according to Gomez-Gil et al 1998). After 24 hours
cysts were hatch and nauplii were separated from cysts skin’s with positive phototropism
effect. After filtration and concentration of nauplii, 400 of them were transferred to the
conical glasses that prepared for experiment with 70 ppt salinity. On third day of study
survival rate of nauplii was calculated. This process was done with 150 µm mesh. After
nauplii filtration and counting microalgae that would be use as food were counted with
Neubauer lame. Isochrysis galbana cells were counted in center of lame and Chlorella
vulgaris cells were counted in around of lame. For counting of algae’s cells, 5 mL of each
microalga were added in experimental pipes and they were fixed with 1 or 2 drops of
Formalin (5%). Before counting of microalgae cells we have to wash and dry Neubauer
lame. After concentration of algae to 18×106 cells mL-1 they used as food for T1 and T2
treatment lots. For bakery yeast preparation, first we added 4 grams of yeast into the
600 mL of 50 ppt salt water and then kept it under aeration condition for 20 minutes. We
AACL Bioflux, 2011, Volume 4, Issue 4.
feed T3 with 0.8 mL of this yeast suspension. Control treatment was feed with blend of
micro algae’s and bakery yeast. Artemia survival rate and length examine was control
respectively in 3rd, 7th, 11th and 15th day of experiment (Triantaphllidis et al 1998). At the
end of study, percent of live nauplii were compared with initial nauplii. Growth rate was
tested with length measurement (length of body from head to last pectoral band). A
percentage of 30% from each treatment were randomly chosen for this process. Length
of Artemia was measured with microscope that had micrometer in the third day and after
that they were measured with Digitizer. All data were analyzed by SPSS program,
Duncan exam and one way variance.
The control and experimental treatments feeding
Number of Artemia per tank Nutrition type
Saccharomyces cerevisiae &
Isochrysis galbana &
Result. Results of survival rate of Artemia parthenogenetica were prepared by their
feeding material separately in Table 3.
Survival percent of Artemia parthenogenetica feed with
four different types of microorganisms
After information evaluation difference survival rate and growth rate were observed in
different treatments of animals that feed with different types of food. There was
significant difference between control treatment that feed with blend of microalgae and
bakery yeast and T2, or T3, that feed with different microalgae species alone (P<0.05).
This result was observed in third and seventh experimental day. After seventh day there
was significant difference between control and all other treatment lots (P<0.05). The best
survival percent was related to control (84.00) that feed with blend of algae and bakery
yeast. The lowest survival percent was related to T3 (59.58) that feed just with bakery
yeast. There was no significant difference between T1 that feed with Isochrysis galbana
and T2 feed with Chlorella vulgaris (P>0.05). Different nutrition has serious effect on
survival rate and growth. In seventh and third days there was no significant difference
between T1 that feed with Isochrysis galbana and control in survival rate (P>0.05) but
after seventh day we observed significant difference between them (P<0.05).
AACL Bioflux, 2011, Volume 4, Issue 4.
Length examine of Artemia parthenogenetica on 3rd day until 15th day were explained in
Figs 1-4. By this results there was no significant difference between T3 and control on 3rd
and 7th day (P>0.05). But after reviewing analyze on 11th and 15th days significant
difference was observed (P<0.05). On 11th day the highest growth rate was related to
control treatment (6.72 mm) and the lowest was related to T2 (4.05 mm). On 15th day
there were significant difference between control treatment (8.99 mm) and T1 (6.30
mm), T2 (5.63 mm) and T3 (7.28 mm). The best feeding operation that causes the
highest growth and survival rate was observed in control treatment that feed with blend
of algae and bakery yeast.
Discussion. Some kinds of microalgae and bakery yeast have nutritional matters that
cause improvement of growth rate and survival rate. In different references we found
different density of algae that use for feeding of Artemia. In this study, density of
microalgae was 18×106 cell mL-1 (Abdul-Elah et al 2001). In other studies about algae
and their use for rotifer feeding, density of Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella vulgaris were
700×103 - 700×106 cell mL-1. Evjemo et al (2000) reported that Artemia franciscana
cultured for 11 days at 26 to 28°C, 34 ppt salinity and density of 10 mg L-1 has the best
growth and survival rate. Our study showed that a different diet which has different
nutritional price has different effect of growth and survival rate. Isochrysis galbana has
high nutritional price due to improvement of growth rate in aquatic animals (Avendano &
Riquelme 1999). Phytoplankton that contains microalgae has high level of nutrient
(Hatton & Wilson 2007). Recent studies showed that use of microalgae such as Chlorella,
Nannochloropsis and Chaetocerus due to improvement of PUFA fatty acids on consumers
body (Lavens & Sorgeloos 1991). At the end of experiment the best length examine was
related to control treatment (8.99 mm) and after that related to T3 (7.28 mm), T1 (6.30
mm) and T2 (5.63 mm) respectively. This study has shown that growth rate of Artemia
parthenogenetica which feed with different diets had different result. At 15th day the
highest survival percent was related to control (84.00) and the lowest was related to T3
(59.58). Sahandi et al (2010) reported that rotifer treatment that feed with bakery yeast
had developed well but after period of time decreased. They explained that this mortality
was related to fecal that released by rotifers. In recent studies researchers pointed to the
fatty acids that existed in microalgae and this cause improvement of PUFA in body of
artemia and any organism that consume artemia (Chakraborty et al 2007). In our study
we evaluated effect of different diets on growth and survival rate of Artemia
parthenogenetica. For this goal we experienced four treatments, and one of them was
AACL Bioflux, 2011, Volume 4, Issue 4.
control and feed with blend of two microalgae and bakery yeast. This study has take 15
days long and at the end control has shown the best growth and survival rate.
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Received: 12 April 2011. Accepted: 16 May 2011. Published online: 20 May 2011.
Mehdi Dehghan, Gonbad University, Department of Natural Resources, Iran, Gonbad; Postal code: 4971857765,
Hojatolah Jafaryan, Gonbad University, Department of Natural Resources, Iran, Gonbad; Postal code:
4971857765, e-mail: Hojat.Jafaryan@gmail.com
Hadi Jamali, Gonbad University, Department of Natural Resources, Iran, Gonbad; Postal code: 4971857765, e-
Javad Sahandi, Gonbad University, Department of Natural Resources, Iran, Gonbad; Postal code: 4971857765,
Hossein Adineh, Gonbad University, Department of Natural Resources, Iran, Gonbad; Postal code: 4971857765,
Moein Faramarzi, Gonbad University, Department of Natural Resources, Iran, Gonbad; Postal code:
4971857765, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article:
Dehghan M., Jafaryan H., Jamali H., Sahandi J., Adineh H., Faramarzi M., 2011 Evaluation of growth and
survival rate of Artemia parthenogenetica feed with micro algae (Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella vulgaris) and
bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). AACL Bioflux 4(4):463-468.