Isospin Dynamics in Heavy Ion Collisions

Source: arXiv


Some isospin dynamics results in heavy ion collisions from low to relativistic energies obtained through transport approaches, largely inspired by David M.Brink, are reviewed. At very low energies, just above the Coulomb barrier, the stimulating implications of the prompt dipole radiation in dissipative collisions of ions with large isospin asymmetries are discussed. We pass then to the very rich phenomenology of isospin effects on heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies (few AGeV range). We show that it can allow a ``direct'' study of the covariant structure of the isovector interaction in the hadron medium. We work within a relativistic transport frame, beyond a cascade picture, consistently derived from effective Lagrangians, where isospin effects are accounted for in the mean field and collision terms. Rather sensitive observables are proposed from collective flows (``differential'' flows) and from pion/kaon production ($\pi^-/\pi^+$, $K^0/K^+$ yields). For the latter point relevant non-equilibrium effects are stressed. The possibility of the transition to a mixed hadron-quark phase, at high baryon and isospin density, is finally suggested. Some signatures could come from an expected ``neutron trapping'' effect. The importance of {\it violent} collision experiments with radioactive beams, from few AMeV to few AGeV, is stressed.

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Available from: M. Di Toro, May 06, 2013
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    ABSTRACT: In nuclear collisions induced by stable or radioactive neutron-rich nuclei a transient state of nuclear matter with an appreciable isospin asymmetry as well as thermal and compressional excitation can be created. This offers the possibility to study the properties of nuclear matter in the region between symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. In this review, we discuss recent theoretical studies of the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter and its relations to the properties of neutron stars and radioactive nuclei. Chemical and mechanical instabilities as well as the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated. The in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections at different isospin states are reviewed as they affect significantly the dynamics of heavy ion collisions induced by radioactive beams. We then discuss an isospin-dependent transport model, which includes different mean-field potentials and cross sections for the proton and neutron, and its application to these reactions. Furthermore, we review the comparisons between theoretical predictions and available experimental data. In particular, we discuss the study of nuclear stopping in terms of isospin equilibration, the dependence of nuclear collective flow and balance energy on the isospin-dependent nuclear equation of state and cross sections, the isospin dependence of total nuclear reaction cross sections, and the role of isospin in preequilibrium nucleon emissions and subthreshold pion production.
    International Journal of Modern Physics E 01/2012; 07(02). DOI:10.1142/S0218301398000087 · 1.34 Impact Factor
  • Nature 01/1959; DOI:10.1038/233430b0 · 41.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stiffness of the hadronic equation of state has been extracted from the production rate of K+ mesons in heavy-ion collisions around 1 AGeV incident energy. The data are best described with a compression modulus K around 200 MeV, a value which is usually called "soft." This is concluded from a detailed comparison of the results of transport theories with the experimental data using two different procedures: (i) the energy dependence of the ratio of K+ from Au+Au and C+C collisions and (ii) the centrality dependence of the K+ multiplicities. It is demonstrated that input quantities of these transport theories which are not precisely known, such as the kaon-nucleon potential, the deltaN --> NK+lambda cross section, or the lifetime of the delta in matter, do not modify this conclusion.
    Physical Review Letters 01/2006; 96(1):012302. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.012302 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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