Producción forzada de duraznero (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) en el altiplano tropical de Boyacá (Colombia)

Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas 01/2010; 4:19-32. DOI: 10.17584/rcch.2010v4i1.1223


The peach, which originated in China, finds favorable conditions in the tropics for continuous production cycles, avoiding entering endodormancy for the buds. In the high altitude zones (1.800-2.700 m a.s.l.) of Colombia, varieties with low temperature requirements and short fruit development (e.g., ‘Eldorado’, ‘Diamante’) are managed in forced growing cycles with three harvests per 2 years. This is managed by the
cultural practices, in order of sequence after fruit harvesting, of: fertilization, phytosanitary control, defoliation, pruning, irrigation, and application of a dormancy breaking chemical, which induces flowering 3-4 months after harvest. In the case of varieties with higher temperature requirements and longer fruit development (e.g., ‘Rubidoux’), harvesting is possible every 10.5 to 11.00 months. Thus, production can be programmed for the second half of the year, when the value in the market is comparatively higher. This article aims to clarify some bases of physiology and development of the peach in the tropics upon which it could be possible to implement a system and management for continuous harvests under conditions found in Colombia.

    • "Lack or reduced chilling temperatures in the tropics require trees to be defoliated chemically or physically, or by an interaction of both techniques to break dormancy in order for bud-break to occur. Chemical defoliation refers to leaf removal by applying chemicals such as urea, copper sulfate, magnesium chloride, hydrogen cyanamide and potassium nitrate (Erez, 1985; Mohamed, 2008; Fischer, 2010). Whereas, physical defoliation is often done manually or by withholding irrigation (Edwards, 1987a). "

    Advances in Environmental Research Vol 31, 1 edited by Justin A. Daniels, 02/2014: chapter Ecophysiology of Temperate Fruit Trees in the Tropics; Nova Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-62948-746-5
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    • "Durante el estado de diferenciación, las yemas generativas tienen que pasar una serie de estados que normalmente están completamente terminados cuando se hinchan, lo cual ocurre poco antes de la brotación. En duraznero, la inducción floral ocurre normalmente muy cerca de la cosecha, en ramas del último crecimiento que aún no han producido frutos .Cuando el árbol se encuentra en estados fenológicos desfasados y traslapados como sucede por falta de frío o después de una sequía cuando de repente se presenta una lluvia fuerte, las yemas pueden abrirse antes de la cosecha y dificultan el manejo adecuado para cosechas continuas (Fischer et al., 2010). "

    Los frutales caducifolios en Colombia - Situación actual, sistemas de cultivo y plan de desarrollo, Edited by Diego Miranda, Gerhard Fischer, Carlos Carranza, 01/2013: chapter Comportamiento de los frutales caducifolios en el trópico: pages 31-46; Sociedad Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas, Bogotá., ISBN: 9789589867877
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    • "Because carbohydrates are removed with fruits during harvest and the leaves are the organs of high carbon uptake by the plant, after harvest, all practices that favor carbon uptake such as light and health should be optimized (Lenz, 2009), (figure 2). Fischer et al. (2010) recommended maintaining peach trees growing in the Colombian highlands with intact leaves 3-4 months after harvest, before defoliation, to improve CH accumulation for the next cycle. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fruit production and quality depend on adequate source-sink relationships. Carbohydrates (CH) translocated from leaves or reserve organs are the most important for the growth and development of sink organs (mainly fruits). Up to 60% of CH produced daily can be lost through respiration. Carbohydrates constitute over 65% of the dry matter of tree crops. Increasing the leaf-fruit ratio generally increases fruit growth and CH content. Photosynthesis increases with fruit load and the leaves next to fruits are strong sources for CH. The leaf-fruit ratio is species, cultivar and geographic location dependent. The optimal leaf area in various species is 200 cm 2 per 100 g of fruit.
    12/2012; 6(2):238-253. DOI:10.17584/rcch.2012v6i2.1980
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