16th International Congress of the
Hungarian Society for Microbiology
Commemorating the 60th Anniversary
of the Organization's Foundation
July 20–22, 2011
Eötvös Loránd University Convention Centre
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 58, 2011
applied nitrogen approximately double amounts, 420 mg N/pot (as 351 kg N/ha), and 1680 mg N/pot
(as 1403 kg N/ha). Root samples were collected and stained by aniline-blue as it described by
Trouvelot et al. (1986). Mycorrhizal colonization intensity (M%) and arbusculum richness (A%) were
assessed. Significantly increased mycorrhizal colonization was found at the brown forest and meadow
soils, but at the calcareous chernozem soil these values showed somehow a decreased tendency. More
particularly at the highest N-rates, a reduced arbusculum richness was found, except the brown forest
soil were a significantly higher A% values could be developed at the 1403 kg N/ha doses.
Significantly increased N-content was found in the test plants, (DC25 phenological phase) grown in
the forest soil (P=1%), and in the meadow soil (P=10%). Beside well-studied phosphorous nutrients,
the nitrogen levels can be also crucial parameters in a soil-dependent way at mycorrhiza application.
OCCURRENCE OF TRICHODERMA PLEUROTICOLA IN SHIITAKE
CULTIVATION MATERIAL, AGARICUS COMPOST AND THE
NATURAL SUBSTRATE OF WILD-GROWING AGARICUS SPECIES
P. KÖRMÖCZI1, SZABINA OLÁH1, SHIVA ZARGARZADEH2, DORINA CIFRA1, P. URBÁN1, G.L. NAGY1, L.
MANCZINGER1, L. HATVANI1, G.E. MOHAMMADI3, D.Y. REZAEE3, ADRIENN NAGY4, CS. VÁGVÖLGYI1, L.
1Department of Microbiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; 2Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty
of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of
Agriculture, Urmia University, Islamic Republic of Iran; 11Pilze-Nagy Ltd., Kecskemét, Hungary
T. pleuroticola is a Trichoderma species from the Lixii-Catoptron clade of the genus Trichoderma,
which – along with the genetically closely related species T. pleurotum – was found to be associated
with the green mould infections in oyster mushroom production. T. pleuroticola has been isolated
from oyster mushroom cultivation substrates in a series of countries including South Korea, Italy,
Hungary and Romania, from soil and wood in Canada, the United States, Iran, New Zealand and
Hungary, from growing substrates and surface of the basidiomes of wild growing oyster mushrooms
as well as from the surface of insects collected in oyster mushroom growing facilities. During a large
scale sampling project aimed at the investigation of the diversity of Trichoderma species associated
with mushrooms, a total number of 150 Trichoderma strains were isolated from different mushroom-
related artificial and natural habitats, including shiitake cultivation substrate from Hungary, Agaricus
compost samples from Bosnia and Iran as well as the natural environment of wild-growing Agaricus
species (A. bisporus, A. bitorquis, A. praequalesquamosus and A. sylvicola) collected in Hungary.
The isolates were identified by the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region
with the aid of the barcoding program TrichOKey 2.0 (www.isth.info). The only species that could be
isolated from the substrate sample derived from shiitake cultivation was T. pleuroticola. This is
especially interesting as the sample derived from the experimental shiitake cultivation of an oyster
mushroom farm where the most frequently isolated green mould agent in oyster mushroom cultivation
is not T. pleuroticola but the closely related species T. pleurotum. In the examined Agaricus compost
sample from Bosnia, the three species detected were T. harzianum, T. atroviride and T. pleuroticola.
T. pleuroticola could be also isolated from 1 out of 5 examined Agaricus compost samples collected
in Iran. Besides 9 other Trichoderma species (T. atroviride, T. cerinum, T. citrinoviride, T. hamatum,
T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. koningiopsis, T. virens and T. velutinum) found to be present in the
natural environment of wild-growing Agaricus species, T. pleuroticola could also be isolated from
wild-growing A. praeclaresquamosus. T. aggressivum could not be found either in the examined
compost samples or in the natural environment of wild-growing Agaricus spp. The results of this
16TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE HUNGARIAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 58, 2011
study provide important data about the distribution of T. pleuroticola, and suggest in agreement with
the results of previously performed dual culture experiments that this species is not just an oyster
mushroom pathogenic green mould, but a mushroom-related Trichoderma species with a wide host
range, which should therefore be considered as a general agent of mushroom green mold diseases.
IN SILICO ANALYSIS OF FUNGAL PDR-TYPE ABC TRANSPORTERS
L. KREDICS, T. MARIK, ZSUZSANNA ANTAL, L. NAGY, CS. VÁGVÖLGYI
Department of Microbiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which can mediate transport
of natural toxic compounds over biological membranes. Typical ABC transporters of fungi contain
two intracytoplasmic regions which both harbor nucleotide binding folds (NBF) and two hydrophobic
regions, both with six transmembrane domains (TMD6). Based on the topology of NBF and TMD6,
ABC transporters can be classified to pleiotropic drug resistance proteins (PDR, [NBF-TMD6]2),
multidrug resistance proteins (MDR, [TMD6-NBF]2), half-sized transporters (TMD6-NBF or NBF-
TMD6) that are The aim of this study was the Phytophthora species from the Oomycota. Within the
Hypocreales, the 3 examined saprophytic and mycoparasitic T. atroviride and Haematonectria
(haematococca could be characterized with a larger set (21) of these transporter proteins. One of the
transporter genes of Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Botrytis cinerea
BMR1 protein - which is playing a role in extruding iprobenfos and polyoxin - are present in both P.
ostreatus. Half-sized PDR-type ABC transporters were also detected in a series of fungi, including
Venturia inaequalis proved to be a half-sized transporter in contrast to the full sized orthologs in
other Sordarialean fungi. Our results enable the functional prediction of a number of PDR-type ABC
transporters based on their homologies with transporters of known function.
SPATIAL AND SEASONAL DIVERSITY OF WATER MICROBIOTA OF
LAKE HÉVÍZ REVEALED BY DENATURING GRADIENT GEL
G. KRETT, ANDREA BORSODI, K. MÁRIALIGETI
Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
Lake Hévíz is the largest thermal spa lake of Central Europe. The water of the lake originates from
two crater springs with different temperatures (26°C and 41°C). Thanks to a special thermoregulatory
mechanism, the water temperature never falls below 22°C. The lake water harbors particular bacterial
communities which may contribute to the curative effect. The aim of the present study was to gain
information about the horizontal, vertical and temporal variability of the aquatic bacterial
communities. Water samples were collected in November 2009, April, July and October 2010. On the
first occasion, samples were collected vertically per meter from the water surface to 29 m depth above
the crater. In 2010 water samples were taken 1 m below the water surface at 14 different locations.
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) based on 16S rRNA gene was performed with
Bacteria and Cyanobacteria specific primers.
According to the results, no differences were found in the structure of bacterial communities
inhabiting the different water depths above the crater probably due to the strong stirring effect of the
water stream. Comparing the bacterial and cyanobacterial communities taken at different sampling