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    ABSTRACT: Some intra-day variable, compact extra-galactic radio sources show brightness temperatures severely exceeding 10^{12} K, the limit set by catastrophic inverse-Compton (IC) cooling in sources of incoherent synchrotron radiation. The violation of the IC limit, possible under non-stationary conditions, would lead to IC avalanches in the soft-gamma-ray energy band during transient periods. For the first time, broadband signatures of possible IC catastrophes were searched for in S5 0716+71. A multifrequency observing campaign targetting S5 0716+71 was carried out in November 2003 under the framework of the European Network for the Investigation of Galactic nuclei through Multifrequency Analysis (ENIGMA) together with a campaign by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT), involving a pointing by the soft-gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL, optical, near-infrared, sub-millimeter, millimeter, radio, and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) monitoring. S5 0716+71 was very bright at radio frequencies and in a rather faint optical state during the INTEGRAL pointing; significant inter-day and low intra-day variability was recorded in the radio regime, while typical fast variability features were observed in the optical band. No correlation was found between the radio and optical emission. The source was not detected by INTEGRAL, neither by the X-ray monitor JEM-X nor by the gamma-ray imager ISGRI, but upper limits to the source emission in the 3-200 keV energy band were estimated. A brightness temperature Tb>2.1x10^{14} K was inferred from the radio variability, but no corresponding signatures of IC avalanches were recorded at higher energies. The absence of IC-catastrophe signatures provides either a lower limit delta>8 to the Doppler factor affecting the radio emission or strong constraints for modelling of the Compton catastrophes in S5 0716+71. Comment: 15 pages, 3 EPS figures, 3 tables, to appear in A&A
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    ABSTRACT: We present new optical and near-IR spectroscopy, as well as new high dynamic range, arcsecond-resolution VLA radio maps, of BL Lacertae objects from the complete radio-selected ``1 jansky'' (1 Jy) sample (RBLs) for which such data were not previously available. Redshift information is now available for all but six of the 37 BL Lac objects in the 1 Jy sample. Of the 31 with redshift information, four redshifts are only minimum values based on absorption lines, and four other objects have uncertain redshifts based on the detection of only a single emission line. Unlike BL Lac objects from the complete X-ray-selected Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) sample (XBLs), most RBLs possess weak but moderately luminous emission lines. The emission-line luminosities of RBLs are several orders of magnitude lower than flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs); however, there is significant overlap in the luminosity distributions of the two classes. All but one object in the 1 Jy sample has now been observed with the VLA, and extended flux was detected for all but three of the observed objects. Whereas nearly all XBLs have extended power levels consistent with FR 1s, more than half of the RBLs have extended radio power levels too luminous to be beamed FR 1 radio galaxies. In fact, we find evidence for and examples of three distinct mechanisms for creating the BL Lac phenomenon in the 1 Jy sample: beamed FR 1s, beamed FR 2s, and possibly a few gravitationally lensed quasars. The value determined for the 1 Jy sample is 0.614+/-0.047, which is markedly different from the negative evolution seen in the EMSS and other XBL samples. A correlation between logarithmic X-ray-to-radio flux ratio and value is observed across the EMSS and 1 Jy samples from negative evolution in the more extreme XBLs to positive evolution in the more extreme RBLs. There is evidence that the selection criteria chosen by Stickel et al. eliminates some BL Lac objects from the 1 Jy sample, although how many is unknown. In addition, several objects currently in the sample have exhibited strong emission lines in one or more epochs, suggesting that they should be reclassified as FSRQs. However, these selection effects cannot account for the observed discrepancy in XBL and RBL properties. From these observational properties, we conclude that RBLs and XBLs cannot be related by viewing angle alone, and that RBLs are more closely related to FSRQs.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2001; 122:565-584. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2008; 480(2):339. · 5.08 Impact Factor

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