Valorisation of corncob residues to functionalised porous carbonaceous materials for the simultaneous esterification/transesterification of waste oils
ABSTRACT Functionalised porous carbonaceous materials prepared from the controlled pyrolysis of corncobs were found to provide excellent activities in the simultaneous esterification/transesterification of highly acidic waste oils to biodiesel-like mixtures. Materials carbonised at 600 °C (mostly microporous) containing –SO3H groups (ca. 1 wt% S, 0.16 mmol g−1 –SO3H) exhibited the optimum yields (>95%) to fatty acid methyl esters after 6 h of reaction.
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ABSTRACT: Catalyst plays an important role in biodiesel production. Owing to the advantages of heterogeneous catalysts in terms of separation and reusability over the traditionally used homogeneous catalyst, the research has now been focused on these heterogeneous catalysts in recent years. In order to make the process fully “green”, researchers are trying to prepare catalysts from renewable sources such as biomass. Within this concept the carbon based catalysts have been introduced. Carbon based materials are considered as ideal catalysts due to desirable features such as low material cost, high surface area and thermal stability. They are easily prepared by functionalizing carbon surface with acids or bases; in other cases carbon material was reported to be used as a support. Additionally, the carbon could be produced from most of the waste generated in different industrial processes. Therefore, its utilization as catalyst makes the biodiesel production a “greener” one. Under optimal conditions biodiesel (FAME) yields upto 90-98.3% were reported over various carbon based catalysts.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 01/2014; 29:546–564. · 5.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m(2) g(-1), which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g(-1) of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste.Scientific Reports 08/2013; 3:2419. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increasingly tighter regulations regarding organic waste, and the demand for renewable chemicals and fuels, are pushing the manufacturing industry toward higher sustainability to improve cost-effectiveness and meet customers’ demand. Food waste valorization is one of the current research areas that has attracted a great deal of attention over the past few years as a potential alternative to the disposal of a wide range of residues in landfill sites. In particular, the development of environmentally sound and innovative strategies to process such waste is an area of increasing importance in our current society. Landfill, incineration and composting are common, mature technologies for waste disposal. However, they are not satisfactory to treating organic waste due to the generation of toxic methane gas and bad odor, high energy consumption and slow reaction kinetics. In fact, research efforts have also been oriented on novel technologies to decompose organic waste. However, no valuable product is generated from the decomposition process. Instead of disposing and decomposing food waste, recent research has focused on its utilization as energy source (e.g., for bioethanol and biodiesel production). Organic waste is also useful to generate useful organic chemicals via biorefinery or white biotechnology (e.g., succinic acid and/or bio-plastics). This article is aimed to summarize recent development of waste valorization strategies for the sustainable production of chemicals, materials, and fuels through the development of green production strategies. It will also provide key insights into recent legislation on management of waste worldwide as well as two relevant case studies (the transformation of corncob residues into functionalized biomass-derived carbonaceous solid acids and their utilization in the production of biodiesel-like biofuels from waste oils in Philippines, as well as the development of a bakery waste based biorefinery for succinic acid and bioplastic production in Hong Kong) to illustrate the enormous potential of biowaste valorization for a more sustainable society. Future research directions and possible sustainable approaches will also be discussed with their respective proofs of concept.Energy Science & Engineering. 09/2013; 1(2).
Rick Arneil Arancon