Nonequilibrium Models of Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

Journal of Physics G Nuclear and Particle Physics (Impact Factor: 5.33). 12/2004; DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/037
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT We review the results from the various hydrodynamical and transport models on the collective flow observables from AGS to RHIC energies. A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A$\cdot$GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the $v_1$-flow and of the $v_2$-flow at $\sim 10$ A$\cdot$GeV; at 40 A$\cdot$GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density $\rho_B$. Moreover, the connection of the elliptic flow $v_2$ to jet suppression is examined. It is proven experimentally that the collective flow is not faked by minijet fragmentation. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially ($<$ 50%) be due to hadronic rescattering. Furthermore, the change in sign of $v_1, v_2$ closer to beam rapidity is related to the occurence of a high density first order phase transition in the RHIC data at 62.5, 130 and 200 A$\cdot$GeV. Comment: 15 pages, 7 eps figures, to be published in J. Phys. G - Proceedings of SQM 2004

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