Article

Detection of Antimicrobial Activity of Solanum melogena L. (Egg plant) Against Pathogenic Microorganisms

Pharmacognosy journal 01/2010; 2:35-39. DOI: 10.1016/S0975-3575(10)80076-8

ABSTRACT Introduction: Solanum melogena L. or egg plant is one of few cultivated Solanaceous species originating from the old
world. Methods: To determine antimicrobial effects of egg plant, well agar diffusion assay for bacteria and colony
diameter method for fungi were used. Crude extracts of different parts of Solanum melogena L. (egg plant) were tested
for their antimicrobial activities against seven pathogenic microorganisms that include two strains of fungi
(dermatophytes) and five strains of bacteria. Results: Root and fruit extracts showed significant effects on tested
microorganisms. Epidermophyton floccosum considered the most susceptible fungus for extract of these parts with MIC
value of 15 and 28 mg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, the bacterium Proteus vulgaris exhibited susceptibility to all tested
extracts with less MIC value. Conclusions: Crude extracts of different parts of S. melogena showed variable potential
effects on various types of pathogenic microorganisms.

1 Bookmark
 · 
376 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of leptine glycoalkaloids in resistance to Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) was studied with Solanum chacoense Bitt. clones that had been selected for extremes of leptine level. Three high-leptine (120-306 mg/100 g fresh weight) clones, one from each of three accessions, were compared with three low-leptine (0-51 mg/100 g) sib-clones for number of adults and feeding damage in the field, adult feeding rate on leaf disks, and larval development on detached foliage. Number of adults per plant on the six clones ranged from 1.5 for the clone with the highest leptine level (306 mg/100 g) to 37.5 for a clone lacking even a trace of these rare glycoalkaloids. There were also wide and significant differences among the six clones for adult feeding damage, adult feeding on leaf disks, larval development rate on detached foliage, and survival to adult eclosion. Differences between the high- and low-leptine clone from each accession were significant for all five resistance parameters, and these differences appeared to be directly related to the concentration of foliar leptines.
    Environmental Entomology 09/1986; 15(of adults per plant on the six clones ranged from 1.5 for the clone with the highest leptine level (306 mg/100 g) to 37.5 for a clone lacking even a trace of these rare glycoalkaloids. There were also wide and significant differences among the six clones for adult feeding damage):1057-1062. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is a destructive insect pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum (L.), found primarily in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It has recently become established in the northwestern United States. Avidin is a natural protein found in chicken (Gallus gallus L.) egg whites that has insecticidal properties against a number of lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. Biotin is a cofactor of carboxylases that are required for many important processes like lipogenesis, gluconeogensis, fatty acid and amino acid catabolism. Without biotin, an insect’s growth is severely stunted, eventually leading to death. Avidin binds and sequesters biotin, limiting its availability during insect growth and development. Previous studies have demonstrated that avidin is effective against potato tuberworm. We sought to elevate resistance by combining avidin with natural host plant resistance factors from the wild species Solanum chacoense Bitter. We expressed avidin in two potato lines: MSE149-5Y, a susceptible potato line, and ND5873-15, a line with S. chacoense-derived resistance. The avidin expression was determined by ELISA to be 10.6μM in MSE75.7 (avidin) and 12.5μM in ND75.3 (avidin + S. chacoense-derived) in the tuber. Potato tuberworm bioassays were performed on MSE149-5Y, MSE75.7, ND5873-15, and ND75.3. Mortality was measured after 28 d. Mortality of larvae fed on MSE149-5Y (susceptible) did not differ significantly compared to the mortality of larvae fed on MSE75.7 (avidin) or ND5873-1 (S. chacoense-derived). Significantly higher mortality (98%) was observed for larvae fed on ND75.3 (avidin + S. chacoense-derived) tubers than for larvae fed on MSE149-5Y (susceptible). The present study is the first report of combining avidin with natural host plant resistance factors against potato tuberworm. Expressing avidin in combination with natural host plant resistance may be of value in managing potato tuberworm. El gusano del tubérculo Phthomaea operculella (Zeller) es una plaga destructiva de papa Solanum tuberosum L., se encuentra principalmente en las regiones tropical y subtropical. Se le ha encontrado recientemente en los estados del noroeste de los EE.UU. La avidina es una proteína que se halla en la clara de huevo de las aves de corral (Gallus gallus L.) que tiene propiedades insecticidas contra ciertos lepidópteros y coleópteros. La biotina es un cofactor de las carboxilasas requerido para muchos procesos importantes como la lipogénesis, gluconogésis y el catabolismo de los ácidos grasos y aminoácidos. Sin la biotina, el crecimiento del insecto es severamente afectado conduciéndolo eventualmente a la muerte. La avidina une y secuestra a la biotina, limitando su disponibilidad durante el crecimiento y desarrollo del insecto. Estudios previos han demostrado que la avidina es efectiva contra el gusano del tubérculo de papa. Buscamos elevar la resistencia mediante la combinación de avidina con factores de resistencia natural de plantas hospedantes provenientes de Solanum chacoense Bitter. Expresamos la avidina en dos líneas de papa: MSE149-5Y, línea susceptible y ND5873-15 línea resistente derivada de S. chacoense. La presencia de avidina fue determinada por ELISA como 10.6µM en MSE75.7 (avidina) y 12.5µM en ND75.3 (avidina + derivado de S. chacoense) en los tubérculos. Se realizaron bioensayos del gusano del tubérculo en MSE149-5Y, MSE75.7, ND58.73-15 y ND75.3.. La mortalidad de larvas sobre MSE149-5Y (susceptible) no fue significativamente diferente comparado a la mortalidad de la larva alimentada con MSE75.7 (avidina) o ND5873-1 (derivado de S. chacoense). Se observó una mayor mortalidad (98%) significativa en larvas alimentadas sobre tubérculos de ND75.3 (avidina + derivado de S. chacoense) que en larvas alimentadas sobre tubérculos de MSE149-5Y (susceptible). El presente estudio da el primer informe de una combinación de avidina con factores de resistencia natural de la planta hospedante contra el gusano del tubérculo de papa. La expresión de la avidina en combinación con la resistencia natural de la planta hospedante puede ser una herramienta valiosa para el manejo del gusano del tubérculo de papa.
    American Journal of Potato Research 01/2009; 86(1):24-30. · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eggplant roots colonized by a sterile, white mycelial endophyte (SWM) were previously found to become highly resistant to Verticillium wilt. SWM alone, however, caused no visible, disease symptoms, such as wilting or necrosis. The mechanism of the symptomless infection by SWM was investigated in this study. Electron microscopy revealed that hyphae of SWM were abundant on and inside the root epidermal cells 2 weeks after inoculation. Many terminal appressoria formed from apical tips of hyphae, and heavy degradation of the host cell walls was evident where hyphae accumulated. By 4 weeks following inoculation, penetration pegs easily breached epidermal cells, and the infection hyphae penetrated outer cortical cells. In response to the hyphal ingress, numerous tubule-like vesicles and membrane-bound, multivesicular bodies accumulated in cortical cytoplasm near the infection sites of the outer cortical cells, but no visible signs of the host reactions were seen in the epidermal cells. Papillae developed at the spaces between cell walls and plasma membranes at the infection sites. The penetration hyphae often grew out of the papillae, but further hyphal ingress was halted in the middle cortical cell layer. By 8 weeks following inoculation, papillae that developed in these cells contained larger amounts of highly electron-dense material and were reinforced by multilamellate, fibrous elements. Hyphae that entered such papillae were confined to them, and the hyphal cytoplasm degenerated. As the result of the activated resistance reactions, root vascular cylinders remained intact, and the host plants did not wilt.
    Journal of General Plant Pathology 09/2003; 69(5):292-296. · 0.71 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
960 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014