Influence of GST Gene Polymorphisms on the Clearance of Intravenous Busulfan in Adult Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
ABSTRACT Intravenous (i.v.) busulfan can produce a more consistent pharmacokinetic profile than oral formulations can, but nonetheless, significant interpatient variability is evident. We investigated the influence of polymorphisms of 3 GST isozyme genes (GSTA1, GSTM1, and GSTT1) on i.v. busulfan clearance. Fifty-eight adult patients who received 3.2 mg/kg/day of busulfan as conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation were included in this study. Stepwise multiple linear regression demonstrated that GSTA1 variant GSTA1 *B (P = .004), GSTM1/GSTT1 double-null genotype (P = .039), and actual body weight (P = .001) were significantly associated with lower clearance of i.v. busulfan. A trend test analyzing the overall effect of GST genotype on busulfan pharmacokinetics, combining GSTA1 gene polymorphism and the number of GSTM1- and GSTT-null genotypes, showed a significant correlation between GST genotype and busulfan clearance (P = .001). The clearance of i.v. busulfan was similar between patients with GSTA1 *A/ *A and GSTM1/GSTT1 double-null genotypes and those with GSTA1 *A/ *B and GSTM1/GSTT1 double-positive genotypes. In conclusion, a pharmacogenetic approach using GST gene polymorphisms may be valuable in optimizing the i.v. busulfan dosage scheme. Our results also highlight the importance of including polygenic analyses and addressing interactions among isozyme genes in pharmacogenetic studies.