Pattern of recurrence of illness after recovery from an episode of major depression: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT This study assessed prospectively the pattern of recurrence of illness after recovery from an episode of major depression.
Seventy-two patients who had recovered from an episode of primary, nonbipolar, nonpsychotic major depression were evaluated bimonthly with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale for a period ranging from 20 to 108 months (median = 66 months). New ("prospective") episodes were ascertained with a structured diagnostic interview. The probabilities of remaining well after the index episode and after the first prospective episode were assessed by the life-table method. The severity and duration of prospective episodes and the index episode were compared by linear regression analysis.
The probability of remaining well after recovery from the index episode was 76% at 6 months, 63% at 1 year, and 25% at 5 years. The risk of recurrence was lower among patients receiving prophylactic treatment with antidepressants and/or lithium and among those with histories of fewer than three previous episodes. The probability of remaining well was significantly lower 2 years after the first prospective episode than 2 years after the index episode. A pattern of increasing severity from the index episode to the first, second, and third prospective episodes was observed and was not affected by treatment.
Major depression has a high rate of recurrence, even when bipolar and psychotic cases are excluded. The highest rate is observed during the first months after recovery from an episode. Prophylactic drug treatment reduces the risk of recurrence but apparently does not affect the trend toward increasing severity of subsequent episodes.
- SourceAvailable from: Cristina Colombo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Research on mood disorders has progressively focused on the study of seasons and on the mood in association with them during depressive or manic episodes yet few studies have focused on the seasonal fluctuation that characterizes the patient's clinical course both during an illness episode and during euthymic periods. Methods. 113 euthymic outpatients 46 affected by major recurrent depression and 67 affected by bipolar disorder were recruited. We evaluated the impact of clinical "rhythmical" factors: seasonality, sleep disturbance, and chronotype. Patients completed the SPAQ+ questionnaire, the MEQ questionnaire, and the medical outcomes study (MOS) sleep scale. We used t-test analyses to compare differences of clinical "rhythmical" and sociodemographic variables and of differences in the assessment scales among the diagnostic groups. Results. Patients reporting a family history for mood disorders have higher fluctuations throughout seasons. Sleep disturbance is more problematic in unipolars when compared to bipolars. Conclusions. Sleep, light, and seasonality seem to be three interconnected features that lie at the basis of chronobiology that, when altered, have an important effect both on the psychopathology and on the treatment of mood disorders.Depression research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:978962. DOI:10.1155/2012/978962
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the duration of subsequent depressive episodes and periods of recovery, and much is based on potentially biased retrospective data. We therefore prospectively assessed whether duration of depressive episodes and recoveries is correlated within subjects and across episodes, and whether duration of subsequent depressive episodes and recoveries increases or decreases over time. From a sample of 267 depressed primary care patients enrolled in a RCT, we identified 279 depressive episodes and 455 recovery periods during a 3-year follow-up. We correlated durations of depressive episodes and of recovery within subjects, and compared within subjects the duration of first depressive episodes after index depression with second and third episodes, and similarly with recovery periods. No significant correlations were found between duration of depressive episodes or between recovery periods within subjects (Rs ranging from -0.17 to 0.08; all Ps >0.05). Median duration of first and second depressive episodes was 11 (IQR 6-19) and 9 weeks (IQR 5-14). Median duration of first and second recovery periods was 16.5 (IQR 7-31) and 17.5 weeks (IQR 9-32). No significant increase or decrease was observed in duration of consecutive depressive episodes, nor in recovery periods across episodes (all Ps >0.05). In this prospective study, we found no correlation between duration of depressive episodes or between recovery periods within subjects. Moreover, we found no support for an increase or decrease in subsequent duration of depressive episodes or a decrease in recovery periods across episodes. These findings do not support the notion that experiencing multiple depressive episodes results in a growing vulnerability.Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2010; 125(1-3):141-5. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2009.12.013 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The potential of personalized medicine to transform the treatment of mood disorders has been widely touted in psychiatry, but has not been quantified. We estimated the costs and benefits of a putative pharmacogenetic test for antidepressant response in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) from the societal perspective. Specifically, we performed cost-effectiveness analyses using state-transition probability models incorporating probabilities from the multicenter STAR*D effectiveness study of MDD. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were compared for sequential antidepressant trials, with or without guidance from a pharmacogenetic test for differential response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Likely SSRI responders received an SSRI, whereas likely nonresponders received the norepinephrine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion. For a 40-year old with MDD, applying the pharmacogenetic test and using the non-SSRI bupropion for those at higher risk for nonresponse cost $93,520 per additional QALY compared with treating all patients with an SSRI first and switching sequentially in the case of nonremission. Cost per QALY dropped below $50,000 for tests with remission rate ratios as low as 1.5, corresponding to odds ratios approximately 1.8-2.0. Tests for differential antidepressant response could thus become cost effective under certain circumstances. These circumstances, particularly availability of alternative treatment strategies and test effect sizes, can be estimated and should be considered before these tests are broadly applied in clinical settings.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2009; 34(10):2227-36. DOI:10.1038/npp.2009.50 · 7.83 Impact Factor