The source of vagal efferent discharge (VED) in the anterior branch of the gastric vagus was investigated in urethane-chloralose anesthetized rats using successive and selective vagal cuts. After cutting the right cervical vagus, the basal VEDs were increased in 15 out of 21 cases by 4-53% (median 18%). After both cervical vagi were cut, VEDs were reduced by 10-95% (median 90%) in 14 of 17 experiments and a subcervical basal VED was observed in all rats. Additional cut of the distal end of the anterior gastric branch did not induce a consistent effect. A small segment of subdiaphragmatic anterior gastric vagus (4-5 mm) was further isolated by a fourth cut at the proximal end of the anterior gastric vagus; abolition of the subcervical VED occurred in only 4 of 14 successful cuts whereas in the other 10 experiments, the VED was reduced by 38-94% (median 87%). Histological examination revealed the presence of neurons in a paraganglion lying within the isolated nerve segment. These findings indicate that the stomach not only receives VED descending directly from medullary vagal motor neurons (about 90%), but also (approximately 10%) from neural elements located between subcervical to upper abdomen levels (the 'subcervical VED') and/or between the bifurcation of the accessory celiac branch to the gastro-esophageal junction (the 'residual VED'). In rats there is little crossed gastric vagal innervation, in agreement with anatomical observations, although there is a robust inhibitory influence from contralateral vagal afferents on medullary vagal motor neurons.
"On the other hand, the gastric afferents are much more complex. Although sensory fibers from the stomach run through the greater splanchnic nerves and enter the spinal cord around T 7 T 9 , the vagi nerves also carry sensory fibers both in rats and humans (Wei et al., 1992). The pathophysiology of AD is complex. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility inhibition after spinal cord injury has been classically considered to result from autonomic dysreflexia (AD). Animal models have been designed in rats to evaluate the presence of AD induced by colonic or bladder distension. However, there are no animal models of AD induced by gastric distension (GD). We examined whether controlled GD could induce AD and compared the pattern of hemodynamic responses induced by GD with colonic distensions (CD) and the interaction between them. Male Wistar rats underwent spinal cord transections performed at the level of C(7)-T(1), T(4)-T(5) and T(9)-T(10) (control) vertebrae and the presence of AD was evaluated after 1 day. In animals with C(7)-T(1) lesions, each CD in a series of 4 consecutive CDs triggered AD while GD only triggered AD after the 2 initial distensions in a series of 4 consecutive GDs. In animals with T(4)-T(5) lesions, in a protocol of 4 consecutive CDs or GDs, AD was triggered only by the 2 initial distensions. In 2 other protocols, consisting of 2 consecutive CDs or GDs followed respectively by 2 GDs or CDs, the effect of 2 GDs was attenuated in animals with C(7)-T(1) and T(4)-T(5) lesions but the hemodynamic changes induced by CDs were not affected by prior GDs. In summary, this is a new model of AD triggered by GD in rats. AD is more intense in animals with C(7)-T(1) lesions than after T(4)-T(5) lesions and AD triggered by GD can be attenuated by prior CDs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central nervous system action of bombesin to influence basal gastric vagal efferent discharge (GVED) was investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Bombesin (62, 620, and 6200 pmol) injected intracisternally (IC) decreased GVED to 78 +/- 10%, 50 +/- 4%, and 43 +/- 3% of preinjection levels, respectively. Bombesin (620 pmol) injected IV also reduced GVED to 36 +/- 6%. Pretreatment with bombesin monoclonal antibody 2A11 completely prevented the decrease in GVED induced by bombesin (620 pmol) given IV but not IC. These data indicate that both IC and IV injections of bombesin decrease basal GVED, and that the inhibitory effect of IC injection represents a central nervous system-mediated action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies indicated that in rats about 10% of ventral gastric vagal efferent discharges do not originate from supracervical neural elements. To determine the origin of these efferent activities, an in vitro subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve-esophagus preparation was used. Action potentials with the same amplitude and waveform, and behaving 'all or none' characteristic are considered to be recorded from a nerve fiber and defined as an unit activity. Because these centrifugal unit activities were recorded from the proximal cut end of the ventral gastric vagal strands, they are ostensibly considered to be efferent activities. However, about 50% of unit action potential samples (21 out of 40) behave like unit activities recorded from mechanoreceptive afferent fibers. They have spot-like or diffuse mechanoreceptive fields on the subdiaphragmatic esophagus. When these receptive fields were stimulated the sensory nerve terminals in the fields generate afferent unit action potentials. These afferent potentials not only propagate orthodromically to the central nerve system, but also can be transmitted centrifugally to the gastric branches of the same vagal afferent neuron. Together with the efferent discharges of gastric vagal motor neurons, these centrifugal sensory potentials can be intercepted from the proximal cut end of gastric vagal nerve strands at gastroesophageal junction. Three types of mechanoresponsive centrifugal afferent unit activities were observed: rapidly adapting (n = 8), with or without after-discharge; slowly adapting (n = 8), with or without after-discharge, and initial high frequency followed by a plateau, with long-lasting after-discharge (n = 5). Of the tested units (n = 24), 25% were either activated or inhibited by esophageal inflation and 23% (n = 22) by esophageal deflation. It is evident that not all centrifugal unit action potentials recorded from the proximal cut end of gastric vagal nerve strands are generated from the vagal motor neurons, the recorded centrifugal unit activities may contain antidromic unit action potentials generated from the esophageal collateral branches of the gastric vagal afferent nerve fibers. These results suggest that gastric vagal afferent neurons possess collateral branches innervating the esophagus, activation of esophageal terminals may exert an effect on the gastric terminals via collateral reflex, analogous to the 'axon reflex' mechanism.
Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 05/1995; 52(2-3):83-97. DOI:10.1016/0165-1838(94)00146-B
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.