Deconvolution of the circular dichroism spectra of proteins: the circular dichroism spectra of the antiparallel beta-sheet in proteins.
ABSTRACT A recently developed algorithm, called Convex Constraint Analysis (CCA), was successfully applied to determine the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the pure beta-pleated sheet in globular proteins. On the basis of X-ray diffraction determined secondary structures, the original data set used (Perczel, A., Hollosi, M., Tusnady, G. Fasman, G.D. Convex constraint analysis: A natural deconvolution of circular dichroism curves of proteins, Prot. Eng., 4:669-679, 1991), was improved by the addition of proteins with high beta-pleated sheet content. The analysis yielded CD curves of the pure components of the main secondary structural elements (alpha-helix, antiparallel beta-pleated sheet, beta-turns, and unordered conformation), as well as a curve attributed to the "aromatic contribution" in the wavelength range of 195-240 nm. Upon deconvolution the curves obtained were assigned to various secondary structures. The calculated weights (percentages determining the contributions of each pure component curve in the measured CD spectra of a given protein) were correlated with the X-ray diffraction determined percentages in an assignment procedure and were evaluated. The Pearson product correlation coefficients (R) are significant for all five components. The new pure component curves, which were obtained through deconvolution of the protein CD spectra alone, are promising candidates for determining the percentages of the secondary structural components in globular proteins without the necessity of adopting an X-ray database. The CD spectrum of the CheY protein was interesting because it has the characteristic shape associated with the alpha-helical structure, but upon analysis yielded a considerable amount of beta-sheet in agreement with the X-ray structure.
Article: Characterization of two potentially universal turn motifs that shape the repeated five-residues fold--crystal structure of a lumenal pentapeptide repeat protein from Cyanothece 51142.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The genome of the diurnal cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 51142 has recently been sequenced and observed to contain 35 pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs). These proteins, while present throughout the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms, are most abundant in cyanobacteria. The sheer number of PRPs in cyanobacteria coupled with their predicted location in every cellular compartment argues for important, yet unknown, physiological and biochemical functions. To gain biochemical insights, the crystal structure for Rfr32, a 167-residue PRP with an N-terminal 29-residue signal peptide, was determined at 2.1 A resolution. The structure is dominated by 21 tandem pentapeptide repeats that fold into a right-handed quadrilateral beta-helix, or Rfr-fold, as observed for the tandem pentapeptide repeats in the only other PRP structure, the mycobacterial fluoroquinoline resistance protein MfpA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sitting on top of the Rfr-fold are two short, antiparallel alpha-helices, bridged with a disulfide bond, that perhaps prevent edge-to-edge aggregation at the C terminus. Analysis of the main-chain (Phi,Psi) dihedral orientations for the pentapeptide repeats in Rfr32 and MfpA makes it possible to recognize the structural details for the two distinct types of four-residue turns adopted by the pentapeptide repeats in the Rfr-fold. These turns, labeled type II and type IV beta-turns, may be universal motifs that shape the Rfr-fold in all PRPs.Protein Science 12/2006; 15(11):2579-95. · 2.80 Impact Factor
Article: Interpretation of the dissolution of insoluble peptide sequences based on the acid-base properties of the solvent.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dissolution process of model insoluble peptide sequences was investigated in view of the electron acceptor (AN) and electron donor (DN) solvent properties. The Alzheimer's disease-inducing (1-42) Abeta-amyloid peptide and its (1-21) fragment, the (66-97) transmembrane bradykinin B2 receptor sequence, and the strongly aggregated VVLGAAIV were selected as models of insoluble peptides. Solvents presenting similar AN and DN values failed, despite their polarities, to dissociate peptide chains (free in solution or bound to a polymer). The maximum solubility of these aggregated sequences was attained in solvents presenting the highest possible (AN-DN) values (in positive or negative mode). The AN-DN values ranged from approximately -20 to +80 and, notably, the lowest dissociation power was ascribed to solvents presenting values of approximately +40. The strong hydrogen bond donor water is located in this region, indicating that, for dissociation of specific insoluble segments, the solvent should appropriately combine its acid/base strength with the potential for van der Waals interactions. We also observed a sequence-dependent pH effect on peptide solubility confirmed through circular dichroism spectroscopy. This approach also revealed a complex but, in many cases, consistent influence of peptide conformation on its solubility degree, even when structure-inducing solvents were added. In conclusion, the random method of selecting solvents to dissolve insoluble and intractable peptide sequences, still in use by some, could be partially supplanted by the strategy described herein, which may be also applicable to other solute dissociation processes.Protein Science 07/2006; 15(6):1476-88. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Membrane proteins present major challenges for structural biology. In particular, the production of suitable crystals for high-resolution structural determination continues to be a significant roadblock for developing an atomic-level understanding of these vital cellular systems. The use of detergents for extracting membrane proteins from the native membrane for either crystallization or reconstitution into model lipid membranes for further study is assumed to leave the protein with the proper fold with a belt of detergent encompassing the membrane-spanning segments of the structure. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to probe the detergent-associated solution conformations of three membrane proteins, namely bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the Ste2p G-protein coupled receptor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the Escherichia coli porin OmpF. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the traditional model of a detergent-associated membrane protein, the helical proteins BR and Ste2p are not in the expected, compact conformation and associated with detergent micelles, while the beta-barrel OmpF is indeed embedded in a disk-like micelle in a properly folded state. The comparison provided by the BR and Ste2p, both members of the 7TM family of helical membrane proteins, further suggests that the interhelical interactions between the transmembrane helices of the two proteins differ, such that BR, like other rhodopsins, can properly refold to crystallize, while Ste2p continues to prove resistant to crystallization from an initially detergent-associated state.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 10/2008; 112(42):13349-54. · 3.70 Impact Factor