Abiotic and biotic stresses in Plantation Crops: Adaptation and Management
In book: Crop Stress and its Management: Perspectives and Strategies, Edition: 1st, Publisher: Springer, Editors: B. Venkateshwarulu, A.K. Shanker, C. Shanker, M Mandapaka
Plantation crops include perennials grown over large areas in monoculture, excepting fruit trees grown in orchards. These crops face both abiotic and biotic stresses, incited by factors those coexist in plantations. Although Plantation crops are well adapted and are grown mostly in the tropics, where innumerable stress factors operate. Historical significance of few stress havocs in plantation species is remarkable. A wide range of anatomical, physiological and biochemical features contribute to various stress adaptation in plantation crops. Notwithstanding, improvement of stress resistance in plantation species has been mandated to combat unfriendly factors that jeopardize intensive and extensive cultivation. Conventional breeding is cumbersome in plantation crops, where in the process has to involve many generations running for decades, and expensive in terms of time, space and large volume of individuals handled. Recent developments in molecular genetics and biotechnology are aiding acceleration of breeding process in plantation species. Integration of proper crop management strategies with improved cultivars is essential to meet the goals of stress management. This review presents a comprehensive coverage of various adaptive mechanisms and mitigation strategies for several biotic and abiotic stresses affecting major plantation crops like cardamom, cashew, cocoa, coconut, coffee, date, eucalyptus, oil palm, rubber and tea.
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