Characteristics of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil
ABSTRACT Characteristics of oil extracted from hempseeds subjected to microwave treatments were evaluated. Microwave treatment improved oil yield, increased carotenoid and other pigment contents and decreased p-anisidine value without significant changes in other properties. Hempseed oil showed absorbance in the UV-B and UV-C ranges with potential for use as a broad spectrum UV protectant. [beta]-Tocopherol concentrations increased, while the major tocopherol, [gamma]-tocopherol, and fatty acid composition of the oil were unaffected by microwave treatment of hempseed. Hempseed oil showed high kinetic stability during heating and cooling, as characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Microwave treatment shifted the melting range of oils to lower temperatures and increased oxidation temperatures, suggesting increased protective effect upon heating.
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ABSTRACT: Cannabidiol (CBD), a once-considered inert cannabis constituent, is one of two primary constituents of cannabis, alongside delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC/THC). In the last 30 years, CBD has become implicated with a range of pharmaceutical mechanisms of great therapeutic interest and utility. This review details the literature speculating CBD’s attenuation of psychotic symptoms, particularly in light of a marked elevation in mean THC concentrations, and a concomitant decline in CBD concentrations in the prevalent U.K street market cannabis derivatives since c. 2000. CBD is purported to exhibit pharmacology akin to established atypical antipsychotics, whilst THC has been implicated with the precipitation of psychosis, and the induction of associated symptoms. The aim of the review was to clarify the conjecture surrounding CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy, before going on to detail prominent theories about its associated pharmacodynamics. Were CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy established, then there is potential for major latent anthropological repercussions to manifest, such as significant elevations in psychosis manifestations in the U.K. The review found a largely affirmative body of evidence asserting CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy. CBD exhibited capacity to attenuate natural and artificially induced psychoses in both animal and human cohorts, the latter of which included individuals considered resistant to conventional treatment. CBD also shows promising potential for use as an antipsychotic drug for Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with psychosis, owing to its low rate of extra-pyramidal side-effect induction. A range of potential pharmacological mechanisms behind CBD’s neuroleptic pharmacology are outlined, with particular emphasis on its prevention of the hydrolysis and reuptake of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide. However, given the nebular aetiological basis for psychoses, explicit conclusions on how CBD attenuates psychotic symptoms remains to be determined.2321–7235. 10/2013; 1(2):113-147.
- Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 01/2013; 18:154-164. · 5.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Simulated gastrointestinal hydrolysis of hemp seed proteins using pepsin and pancreatin followed by membrane ultrafiltration fractionation yielded fractions with peptide sizes of <1, 1–3, 3–5, and 5–10kDa. Analysis of in vitro antioxidant properties showed that the hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) exhibited a significantly weaker (p<0.05) scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals when compared to the fractionated peptides. Metal chelation activity of the HPH was significantly greater (p<0.05) than the activities of fractionated peptides. Fractionation of the HPH led to significant (p<0.05) improvements in ferric reducing power, DPPH, and hydroxyl radical scavenging radical activities but decreased metal chelation capacity. Peptide fractions with longer chain lengths (3–5 and 5–10kDa) had better metal chelation and ferric reducing power than the <1, and 1–3kDa fractions. HPH and all the peptide fractions significantly inhibited (p<0.05) linoleic acid oxidation when compared to the control. Glutathione (GSH) had significantly greater (p<0.05) ferric reducing power, and scavenging of hydroxyl and DPPH radicals when compared to HPH and fractionated peptides. In contrast, HPH and peptide fractions >3kDa had significantly higher (p<0.05) metal chelation activity than GSH. The results show the potential use of HPH and peptide fractions of defined size for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases. KeywordsHemp seed protein hydrolysate–Antioxidant properties–Free radical scavenging–Metal ion chelating–Amino acid profile–Linoleic acid–DPPH–Hydroxyl radical–Ferric reducing antioxidant powerJournal of Oil & Fat Industries 04/2012; 88(3):381-389. · 1.59 Impact Factor