Effect of varying protein content and glutenin-to-gliadin ratio on the functional properties of wheat dough

Cereal Chemistry (Impact Factor: 1.25). 01/1999; 76:389-394. DOI: 10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.3.389

ABSTRACT Gluten, starch, lipids, and water-soluble material were separated from seven wheat samples with a range of protein contents and breadmaking quality. The isolated glutens were further partitioned into gliadin- and glutenin-rich fractions using pH precipitation. Protein content and glutenin-to-gliadin ratio were systematically altered by blending these fractions into the original flours in calculated amounts. Mixing properties, extension-tester parameters, and baking performance of composite flours were determined using small-scale techniques. Results of dough testing with blends of constant glutenin-to-gliadin ratio showed increases in the mixing time, mixograph peak resistance, maximum resistance to extension, extensibility, and loaf volume as the protein content increased. At constant protein content, increases in glutenin-to-gliadin ratio were associated with increases in mixing time, mixograph peak resistance, maximum resistance to extension, and loaf volume, and with decreases in extensibility. Thus,total protein content and glutenin-to-gliadin ratio independently affected dough and baking properties. The results have allowed the separation of the effects of flour protein quantity and composition on breadmaking properties.

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    ABSTRACT: Protein concentration and composition are key components of the end-use value for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. Although the qualitative composition of the grain is genetically determined, the quantitative composition is significantly modified by growing conditions, and there are important management × genotype × environment interactions. We recently reported a model of grain N accumulation and partitioning for wheat grain. The main assumptions made in this model are: (1) the accumulation of structural/metabolic proteins (albumins-globulins and amphiphils) is sink-driven and is a function of temperature; (2) the accumulation of storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins) is supply limited; (3) on the one hand the allocation of structural/metabolic proteins between albumin-globulin and amphiphilic protein fractions and on the other hand the allocation of storage protein between gliadin and glutenin fractions during grain growth is constant. A modified version of this grain model has been coupled with a revised version of the wheat simulation model Sirius99, allowing us to analyze the interactions between the vegetative sources and the reproductive sinks for N at the crop level. The main modifications to Sirius99 concerned the post-anthesis N uptake and remobilisation. After anthesis, the potential rate of crop N uptake was assumed to decrease linearly with accumulated thermal time, and the actual rate of N uptake was limited by the capacity of the stem to store accumulated N. During grain filling the daily rate of N transfer to grain was calculated daily according to the current crop N-status. The coupled model (SiriusQuality1) simulated dynamics of total grain N and of the different grain protein fractions reasonably well. At maturity, measured total grain N ranged from 0.56 to 1.32 mg N grain −1 , and the observed and simulated total grain N were well correlated (r 2 = 0.82, slope = 1.08) with a mean error of prediction of 0.11 mg N grain −1 . The simulated kinetics of crop N accumulation and stem N were closer to the observations with SiriusQuality1 than with Sirius99, in particular during the reproductive stage. At maturity, simulated and observed quantities of albumins-globulins were poorly correlated (r 2 = 0.02). Over the 18 experimental cases studied here, the quantity of storage proteins varied more than three-fold, and the observed and simulated quantities of gliadins and glutenins were well correlated (r 2 = 0.79 and 0.72, respectively). The simulations of total N and storage proteins accumulation provided by SiriusQuality1 confirmed that accumulation of grain N is overall source-rather than sink-regulated, at least under non-luxury N conditions. SiriusQuality1 provides a simple mechanistic framework that explains environmental effects on grain protein concentration and composition. The next step is to incorporate genetically related model parameters that will portray genotypic differences in protein concentration and composition.
    European Journal of Agronomy 01/2006; 25:138-154. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pressure of economic cost and environmental constraints dictates that farmers must optimize the use of nitrogen fertilizer. Industrial uses of new wheat varieties require specific and stable grain protein concentration, which needs accurate estimation of N demand during the crop cycle. Thus breeding for high N use efficiency (NUE) and yield, whilst maintaining high grain protein concentration, is of high priority for cereal geneticists. Here, the wheat simulation model SiriusQuality1 was used to analyse the effect of variation in physiological traits on wheat NUE, grain protein composition and concentration under variable climate and conventional and limited N supply conditions. Twenty-three of the 53 parameters of SiriusQuality1 were selected for sensitivity analysis based on a literature survey four parameters were related to phenology and canopy development, seven to crop C assimilation and partitioning, eight to crop N uptake and assimilation, and four to grain development and C and N accumulation. Variations in weather and N treatments induced larger variations in NUE than most of the physiological traits considered. The simulations suggest that a single physiological trait is unlikely to break the negative correlation between the grain protein concentration and yield over a wide range of sites and seasons, especially under low N input environments. Increasing the N storage capacity of the leaves and stem and the allocation of N to non-structural proteins appeared as the more promising strategy to breaking the negative correlation between grain yield and protein concentration.
    pages 181-201; , ISBN: 978-1-4020-5904-9
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    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated immune response in the small intestine of genetically susceptible individuals caused by ingested gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. In the allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on the homoeologous chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three homoeologous genomes A, B, and D. The effect of deleting individual gluten loci was analyzed in a set of deletion lines of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring with regard to the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes (Glia-α9 and Glia-α20) and to technological properties of the dough including mixing, stress relaxation, and extensibility.Deletion of loci encoding ω-gliadins, γ-gliadins, and LMW-glutenins located on the short arm of chromosome 1D, reduced the number of T-cell stimulatory epitopes and caused minor deterioration of dough quality by increase of elasticity. Deletion of loci encoding α-gliadins located on the short arm of chromosome 6D, resulted in a significant decrease in T-cell stimulatory epitopes. In parallel, the dough became more stiff and less elastic, which is an improvement for ‘Chinese Spring’ dough.We demonstrated that α-gliadins from wheat can largely be compensated by addition of avenins from oat to the flour to meet technological requirements.
    Journal of Cereal Science - J CEREAL SCI. 01/2011; 53(2):206-216.

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