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    ABSTRACT: Hepatectomy can be performed with a low mortality rate, but massive hemorrhage during the operation remains a potentially lethal problem. The Pringle maneuver is traditionally used during hepatectomy to reduce blood loss, but the effect on the metabolic function of hepatocytes is potentially harmful. Although our randomized study showed that an intermittent Pringle maneuver is safe and effective during hepatectomy, the upper limit of the duration of the Pringle maneuver is not known. The liver can tolerate intermittent Pringle maneuver if the duration is not excessive. From July 20, 1995, to November 25, 1997, 112 patients underwent hepatectomy for liver tumors. The data of 50 patients who had hepatectomy without the Pringle maneuver were compared with those of 62 patients who had a liver transection using a Pringle maneuver for 20 minutes and a 5-minute clamp-free interval. The data were collected prospectively. The surface area of liver transection was measured, and blood loss during liver transection per centimeter square of transection area was calculated. Routine liver biochemical tests, arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR), and plasma cytokine-interleukin (IL) 1alpha, 1beta, 2, and 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha--levels were measured before and after the operation. The morbidity and hospital mortality rates were also compared among the patients with different ischemic durations and those without an intermittent Pringle maneuver. Tertiary referral center. The cutoff point of accumulated ischemic time that induced substantial liver damage, as shown by the postoperative recovery rate of the AKBR, was found to be 120 minutes. Compared with the control group, the patients whose accumulated ischemic time was shorter than 120 minutes had less blood loss related to transection area (10 mL/cm2 vs 22 mL/cm2; P<.001), less blood transfused (0 L vs 0.6 L; P = .004), a shorter transection time related to transection area (2.0 min/cm2 vs 2.8 min/ cm2; P = .002), a significantly higher AKBR in the first 2 hours after liver transection, an equal recovery rate of the AKBR, and a comparable increase of the plasma level of IL-6 postoperatively. For the patients whose accumulated ischemic time was longer than 120 minutes, blood loss from the transection area was less than for the control group (14 mL/cm2 vs 22 mL/cm2; P<.05), but the transection time related to the transection area and the blood transfusion volume did not differ from those of the control group. Furthermore, they had a significantly lower recovery rate of the AKBR and higher plasma levels of IL-6 postoperatively than the control group.
    Archives of Surgery 05/1999; 134(5):533-9. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of vascular clamping during the course of liver resection is to reduce bleeding and subsequent complications. To show both step-by-step surgical techniques for vascular exclusion of the liver and their indications. It is described the following techniques: clamping of the hepatic pedicle, "Pringle" maneuver; intermittent clamping of the hepatic pedicle; intermittent vascular exclusion of the liver, without vena cava clamping, and hepatic vascular exclusion with vena cava clamping. Also metabolic and homodynamic consequences as well as the technical failure of the application of each of them are discussed. The choice of technique to use for clamping during hepatectomy depends on the surgeon's judgment. Dogmatic or systematic attitude, is prejudiciable for the patient and liver surgeon must be able to use all kinds of clamping.
    Arquivos de Gastroenterologia 01/2003; 40(2):131-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether vascular inflow occlusion by the Pringle maneuver during hepatectomy can be safe and effective in reducing blood loss. Hepatectomy can be performed with a low mortality rate, but massive hemorrhage during surgery remains a potentially lethal problem. The Pringle maneuver is traditionally used during hepatectomy to reduce blood loss, but there is a potential harmful effect on the metabolic function of hepatocytes. There has been no prospective randomized study to determine whether the Pringle maneuver can decrease blood loss during hepatectomy, improve outcome, or affect the metabolism of hepatocytes. From July 1995 to February 1997, we studied 100 consecutive patients who underwent hepatectomy for liver tumors. The patients were randomly assigned to liver transection under intermittent Pringle maneuver of 20 minutes and a 5-minute clamp-free interval (n = 50), or liver transection without the Pringle maneuver (n = 50). The surface area of liver transection was measured and blood loss during transection per square centimeter of transection area was calculated. Routine liver biochemistry, arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR), and the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test were done. The two groups were comparable in terms of preoperative liver function and in the proportion of patients having major hepatectomy. The Pringle maneuver resulted in less blood loss per square centimeter of transection area (12 mL/cm2 vs. 22 mL/cm2, p = 0.0001), a shorter transection time per square centimeter of transection area (2 min/cm2 vs. 2.8 min/cm2, p = 0.016), a significantly higher AKBR in the first 2 hours after hepatectomy, lower serum bilirubin levels in the early postoperative period, and, in cirrhotic patients, higher serum transferrin levels on postoperative days 1 and 8. The complication rate, the hospital mortality rate, and the ICG retention at 15 minutes on postoperative day 8 were equal for the two groups. Performing the Pringle maneuver during liver transection resulted in less blood loss and better preservation of liver function in the early postoperative period. This is probably because there was less hemodynamic disturbance induced by the bleeding.
    Annals of Surgery 01/1998; 226(6):704-11; discussion 711-3. · 6.33 Impact Factor

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