Alteration in nitrogen metabolism and plant growth during different developmental stages of green gram ( Vigna radiata L.) in response to chlorpyrifos

Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (Impact Factor: 1.58). 11/2011; Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (26 April 2011), pp. 1-8. doi:10.1007/s11738-011-0772-2 Key: citeulike:9246107(6). DOI: 10.1007/s11738-011-0772-2


Chlorpyrifos is a widely used broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide in the agricultural practice. However, extensive use of this insecticide may lead to its accumulation in ecosystem, thus inducing the toxicity to crops and vegetables. To assess chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity in plants, we performed the experiment focusing on the growth and nitrogen metabolism of green gram plant (Vigna radiata L.). 20-days-old plants were subjected to chlorpyrifos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5 mM through foliar spray in the field condition. Variation in root and shoot length, activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and content of nitrate, sugar, soluble amino acid and soluble protein were studied at preflowering (5 day after treatment, DAT), flowering (10 DAT) and postflowering (20 DAT) stages of plant development. Of the various concentrations of chlorpyrifos, 0.6 and 1.5 mM showed comparatively more severe toxicity to green gram plants by decreasing root and shoot length, nitrate, NR, soluble sugar and protein content where as at low concentration (0.3 mM) of chlorpyrifos proved stimulant for same parameter. Increase in soluble amino acid was observed in age and dose dependent manner. These results reflect strong parallelism between growth and biochemical activities of the model plant. Further lower dose of chlorpyrifos proved as stimulant where as at higher concentration proved detrimental for growth and nitrogen metabolism.

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    • "Furthermore, the present results are similar to those of Tiyagi et al. (2004) for chickpea and Mishra et al. (2008, 2009) for Vigna unguiculata L. and Momordica charantia, respectively. Higher concentration of pesticides induced reduction in plant growth may be due to reduced activity of hydroxyl phenyl pyruvate dioxygenase which is required for meristematic growth and development which has been confirmed by the findings of Luscombe et al. (1995) and Parween et al. (2011) while treating sugarcane and maize with isoxaflutole, and Vigna radiata with chlorpyrifos, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: A glasshouse experiment was conducted to appraise the influence of exogenously applied pesticides such as abamectin, thiamethoxam, pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid on oxidative defence system and some key physiological attributes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Each of these pesticides was applied in three doses (recommended dose, twice and three times higher than the recommended dose). Higher doses of pesticides sprayed to the plants resulted in marked increase in leaf free proline content and electrolyte leakage, but in a decrease in shoot dry matter, chl a, chl b and chl a+b in tomato plants as compared to those plants not sprayed with pesticides. These reductions were greater in tomato plants sprayed with highest doses of thiamethoxam (144 mg L-1), whereas the reverse was true for proline content and electrolyte leakage. The foliar application of pesticides at the highest levels caused enhanced accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in most cases, and these being greater in treatment of foliar application of thiamethoxam at the highest level. The highest doses of pesticides promoted the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in most cases. The results clearly indicate that application of pesticides at higher doses than recommended doses provoked both oxidative and antioxidative systems in tomato plants.
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    • "Significant quantities of Cr are also added to soil by the disposal of fly ash as well as phosphatic fertilizer application [10]. There are a number of factors which influence plant growth, among them nitrogen is one of the most essential elements and its availability in soil is one of the key factors for determining plant growth and productivity [10]. Nitrogen is considered to be a vital macronutrient for plants and has a role in metabolism [11]. "
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    03/2014; 2014:784036. DOI:10.1155/2014/784036
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    • "Impact of chlorpyrifos on plants has also been investigated. Parween et al. (2011) have reported that 105 mg l À 1 chlorpyrifos significantly stimulated growth of Vigna radiata, while 210 and 525 mg l À 1 chlorpyrifos caused significant reduction in growth. Wang et al. (2007) showed that rape oilseed and wheat seedlings were remained somewhat unaffected in 5 and 10 mg chlorpyrifos per kg soil, respectively. "

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