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Alteration in nitrogen metabolism and plant growth during different developmental stages of green gram ( Vigna radiata L.) in response to chlorpyrifos

Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (Impact Factor: 1.52). 01/2011; Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (26 April 2011), pp. 1-8. doi:10.1007/s11738-011-0772-2 Key: citeulike:9246107(6). DOI: 10.1007/s11738-011-0772-2

ABSTRACT Chlorpyrifos is a widely used broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide in the agricultural practice. However, extensive use of this insecticide may lead to its accumulation in ecosystem, thus inducing the toxicity to crops and vegetables. To assess chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity in plants, we performed the experiment focusing on the growth and nitrogen metabolism of green gram plant (Vigna radiata L.). 20-days-old plants were subjected to chlorpyrifos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5 mM through foliar spray in the field condition. Variation in root and shoot length, activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and content of nitrate, sugar, soluble amino acid and soluble protein were studied at preflowering (5 day after treatment, DAT), flowering (10 DAT) and postflowering (20 DAT) stages of plant development. Of the various concentrations of chlorpyrifos, 0.6 and 1.5 mM showed comparatively more severe toxicity to green gram plants by decreasing root and shoot length, nitrate, NR, soluble sugar and protein content where as at low concentration (0.3 mM) of chlorpyrifos proved stimulant for same parameter. Increase in soluble amino acid was observed in age and dose dependent manner. These results reflect strong parallelism between growth and biochemical activities of the model plant. Further lower dose of chlorpyrifos proved as stimulant where as at higher concentration proved detrimental for growth and nitrogen metabolism.

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Available from: Talat Parween, Jul 30, 2015
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    • "Significant quantities of Cr are also added to soil by the disposal of fly ash as well as phosphatic fertilizer application [10]. There are a number of factors which influence plant growth, among them nitrogen is one of the most essential elements and its availability in soil is one of the key factors for determining plant growth and productivity [10]. Nitrogen is considered to be a vital macronutrient for plants and has a role in metabolism [11]. "
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    03/2014; 2014:784036. DOI:10.1155/2014/784036
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    • "Impact of chlorpyrifos on plants has also been investigated. Parween et al. (2011) have reported that 105 mg l À 1 chlorpyrifos significantly stimulated growth of Vigna radiata, while 210 and 525 mg l À 1 chlorpyrifos caused significant reduction in growth. Wang et al. (2007) showed that rape oilseed and wheat seedlings were remained somewhat unaffected in 5 and 10 mg chlorpyrifos per kg soil, respectively. "
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    • "Impact of chlorpyrifos on plants has also been investigated. Parween et al. (2011) have reported that 105 mg l À 1 chlorpyrifos significantly stimulated growth of Vigna radiata, while 210 and 525 mg l À 1 chlorpyrifos caused significant reduction in growth. Wang et al. (2007) showed that rape oilseed and wheat seedlings were remained somewhat unaffected in 5 and 10 mg chlorpyrifos per kg soil, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study deals with the comparative responses of the two cyanobacteria viz. Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum against single and combined doses of low (UV-B(L,) 0.1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and high (UV-B(H), 1.0 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) fluence rates of ultraviolet-B radiation with low (CP(L), 1 μg ml(-1)) and high (CP(H), 2 μg ml(-1)) doses of the insecticide chlorpyrifos by measuring changes in growth, ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and related metabolites. CP(L) and UV-B(L) both caused lesser increase in ROS but significantly stimulated AsA-GSH cycle enzymes. On the other hand, CP(H) and UV-B(H) posed inhibitory effects by enhancing ROS and inhibiting AsA-GSH cycle enzymes. Inhibitions in CP(H) or UV-B(H) treated samples were significantly prevented when they were supplemented with UV-B(L) and CP(L) (after 72 h), respectively by lowering down ROS and enhancing AsA-GSH enzymes and related metabolites which manifested in terms of improved biomass accumulation.
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