Immunoproliferative enteropathy of basenjis.

Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606.
Seminars in veterinary medicine and surgery (small animal) 06/1992; 7(2):153-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Normal individuals maintain tolerance to the endogenous bacterial flora residing within their alimentary tract, a phenomenon mediated by the gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue. Loss of this tolerance is a key factor in the development of chronic intestinal inflammation. Manifestations of such uncontrolled inflammation in humans include inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. Dogs may similarly be affected, and although the etiopathogenesis is likely similar, the lesions differ. This review includes discussion of the factors involved in breakdown of mucosal tolerance, the immunologic basis of canine enteropathies, and the use of novel immunotherapies for these diseases.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2003; 17(1):8-20. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) that affect dogs and cats there appears to be dysregulation of normal mucosal immunity, characterised by polyclonal lymphocytic infiltrates which are presumably specific for luminal antigens. There is an absence of a classical polarisation of either T-helper (Th) 1 or Th2 cytokine responses, although increased expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL) 2 and IL-12p40 and a shift towards mucosal immunoglobulin (Ig) G production are consistent findings, whilst variable responses are seen in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Increased mucosal permeability and deranged intestinal motility are common sequelae. Despite obvious similarities with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in humans, important differences exist. Of these, the diffuse superficial nature but with no Th1 or Th2 bias, and the prevalence of proximal small intestinal disease are notable. Potential hypotheses for these disparities include specific differences in the types or locations of agonistic gut flora, diffuse abnormalities in microbial-host interactions, a greater importance of diet, or anatomical or cellular differences in mucosal immune responses. Although specific pathogens and genetic susceptibilities may be involved, quantitative or qualitative changes in the normal flora or abnormal responses to a normal flora are more likely to be involved in the immunopathogenesis. Dietary influences include a large source of antigen, promotion of abnormal microbial growth through Maillard compounds within canned diets, and specific macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. Although dependent on a histopathological diagnosis, limitations of biopsies procured endoscopically, lack of histopathological standardisation and difficulty distinguishing inflammation from neoplasia remain significant problems. Clinician-pathologist dialogue, immunohistochemistry, cytokine profiling and lymphocyte clonality assessment may lead to more accurate diagnoses, a deeper understanding of the immunopathogenesis, and ultimately to new therapies or prevention of disease induction.
    New Zealand veterinary journal 01/2004; 51(6):262-74. DOI:10.1080/00480169.2003.36380 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic autoantibodies (pANCA) in the serum of healthy Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWTs) in the United Kingdom and to identify potential risk factors and heritability patterns associated with a positive result for pANCA. 188 SCWTs (age range, 18 months to 14.3 years). Blood samples were obtained from SCWTs in various locations in England. Serum was tested for pANCA by use of an immunofluorescence assay, and total protein and albumin concentrations were determined. Pedigrees were evaluated to identify close relatives that had protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) or protein-losing nephropathy (PLN). 39 of 188 (20.7%) dogs, including young dogs, had positive results for pANCA. Dogs had significantly higher odds of having positive results for pANCA if they had at least 1 littermate that had PLE or PLN (odds ratio, 12.1) or if they had at least 1 full sibling from another litter known to be affected with PLE or PLN (odds ratio, 4.0). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE; This study revealed a high prevalence of pANCA in the serum of a representative sample of healthy SCWTs in the United Kingdom and a significant association between positive results for pANCA and a diagnosis of PLE or PLN in a sibling.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 03/2012; 73(3):404-8. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.73.3.404 · 1.21 Impact Factor