Genomic organization, sequence analysis, and chromosomal localization of the human carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) gene and a CEL-like (CELL) gene.
ABSTRACT The gene encoding human carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), including 1628 bp of the 5'-flanking region, has been isolated and characterized from two overlapping lambda phage clones. The gene spans 9832 bp and contains 11 exons interrupted by 10 introns. The exons range in size from 88 to 204 bp, except for the last exon, which is 841 bp. A major and a minor transcription initiation site were determined 13 and 7 bp, respectively, upstream of the initiator methionine. The nucleotide sequence is identical with that of the previously reported cDNA, except for the third nucleotide in the 5'-untranslated sequence, a C, which in the cDNA is a T. A TAAATA sequence is present 26 nt upstream from the major CAP site, and within the 5'-flanking region there are several putative transcription factor binding sites. Seven Alu repetitive sequence elements are present in the region analyzed. The organization of the human CEL gene is similar to that of the recently reported rat pancreatic cholesterol esterase gene. The CEL gene was assigned to chromosome 9q34-qter, which confirms the recently reported results of Tayler et al. (1991, Genomics 10: 425-431). A previously unknown gene with a striking homology to the human CEL gene, here called the CEL-like gene (CELL), has also been isolated and characterized, including 1724 bp of the 5'-flanking region. The CELL gene, which most likely is a psuedogene, spans 4846 bp, and due to the absence of a 4.8-kb segment, the CEL gene exons 2-7 are not present in the CELL gene. Despite these differences, the CELL gene is transcribed. We have also assigned the CELL gene to a separate locus at chromosome 9q34-qter.
SourceAvailable from: Mette Vesterhus
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol (NOME) produces fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via carboxylester lipase (CEL) and other enzyme action implicated in mitochondrial injury and acute pancreatitis (AP). This study investigated the relative importance of oxidative and non-oxidative pathways in mitochondrial dysfunction, pancreatic damage and development of alcoholic AP, and whether deleterious effects of NOME are preventable. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]C), NAD(P)H, mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways were examined in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in response to ethanol and/or palmitoleic acid (POA) in the presence or absence of 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) to inhibit oxidative metabolism. A novel in vivo model of alcoholic AP induced by intraperitoneal administration of ethanol and POA was developed to assess the effects of manipulating alcohol metabolism. Inhibition of OME with 4-MP converted predominantly transient [Ca(2+)]C rises induced by low ethanol/POA combination to sustained elevations, with concurrent mitochondrial depolarisation, fall of NAD(P)H and cellular necrosis in vitro. All effects were prevented by 3-benzyl-6-chloro-2-pyrone (3-BCP), a CEL inhibitor. 3-BCP also significantly inhibited rises of pancreatic FAEE in vivo and ameliorated acute pancreatic damage and inflammation induced by administration of ethanol and POA to mice. A combination of low ethanol and fatty acid that did not exert deleterious effects per se became toxic when oxidative metabolism was inhibited. The in vitro and in vivo damage was markedly inhibited by blockade of CEL, indicating the potential for development of specific therapy for treatment of alcoholic AP via inhibition of FAEE generation.Gut 10/2013; 63(8). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-304058 · 13.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Excessive alcohol consumption is a major trigger for severe acute pancreatitis which may lead to multi-organ dysfunction and premature death of the individual. Hyperlipidaemia is a risk factor for both acute and chronic pancreatitis and the role of fatty acids in mediating damage has received increasing attention in recent years. In the pancreas ethanol is metabolised by both oxidative and non-oxidative pathways. The latter, predominant route generates fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from fatty acid substrates via the action of diverse enzymes called FAEE synthases, including carboxylester lipase an enzyme synthesized and secreted by the acinar cells. Inhibition of the oxidative pathway promotes formation of FAEEs which induce sustained elevations of cytosolic calcium leading to inhibition of mitochondrial function, loss of ATP and necrosis of isolated pancreatic acinar cells. Furthermore, FAEEs undergo hydrolysis in the mitochondria releasing free fatty acids that exert toxic effects. Our recent work has shown that pharmacological inhibition of carboxylester lipase ameliorated detrimental effects of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in vitro and in a new in vivo experimental model of alcoholic acute pancreatitis, revealing a specific enzyme target for ethanol-induced injury. Strategies that prevent FAEE synthesis, protect mitochondria, reduce calcium overload or sustain calcium homeostasis by ATP provision may provide promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of alcoholic acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Pancreatology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2015.02.009 · 2.50 Impact Factor