Insect resistance of transgenic tobacco plants expressing delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis.
ABSTRACT The initiative B.thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt toxin) gene clones TH12 and TH48 contain two different classes of homologous genes, the 5.3 kb class and 6.6 kb class, respectively. Bt toxin genes of both classes, modified at the 5'-end and truncated at the 3'-end, can still be expressed to produce the insecticidal, truncated toxin proteins in E. coli. The modified Bt toxin genes were inserted into the plant binary expression vector pBin 437 (a derivative plasmid of pBin 19) and were transferred into tobacco by Ti plasmid-mediated gene transfer system. Southern blot and DNA slot blot analysis indicate that the Bt toxin genes have been integrated into tobacco genome at a copy number of 1 to 5. Northern blot analysis of polyA+ RNAs from progeny of the transgenic plants revealed that Bt toxin genes of both 5.3 kb and 6.6 kb classes were expressed in transgenic plants, though the transcripts were degraded to RNAs of lower molecular weights. In insecticidal test, 5 plants from the progeny of 5.3 kb class gene-transformed SR1 tobacco plants and 3 plants from those of 6.6 kb class gene-transformed plants were found to be toxic to the testing larvea of H.assulta. In comparison with the control, mortality of the insects fed on transgenic plants reached 40-50% and the growth of the survived insects was remarkably inhibited. These results indicate that the modified Bt genes of the 5.3 kb and 6.6 kb classes were expressed in transgenic plants and could confer on the transgenic plants a new character of insect resistance.
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ABSTRACT: During their foraging activity, honey bees are often exposed to direct and residual contacts with pesticides, especially insecticides, all substances specifically designed to kill, repel, attract or perturb the vital functions of insects. Insecticides may elicit lethal and sublethal effects of different natures that may affect various biological systems of the honey bee. The first step in the induction of toxicity by a chemical is the interaction between the toxic compound and its molecular target. The action on the molecular target can lead to the induction of observable or non-visible effects. The toxic substance may impair important processes involved in cognitive functions, behaviour or integrity of physiological functions. This review is focused on the neural effects of insecticides that have repercussions on (a) cognitive functions, including learning and memory, habituation, olfaction and gustation, navigation and orientation; (b) behaviour, including foraging and (c) physiological functions, including thermoregulation and muscle activity.Apidologie 01/2012; 43:348-370. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study reports an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of green-colored cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). A tissue culture procedure was optimized to induce callus formation from hypocotyl explants and subsequent differentiation into the embryogenic type. Callus formation could be induced by growing explants on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin. Among the four genotypes studied, embryogenic calli and plant regeneration were observed only in var. G9803. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of G9803 with the fiber-specific expansin gene GhExpl was achieved based on the establishment of these tissue culture methods. A total of 32 individual regenerants resistant to kanamycin were generated within 7 mo., with a transformation frequency of 17.8%. Transformation was confirmed by Southern blot analysis and RT-PCR. These results represent the first step towards genetic manipulation of the colors and fiber quality of green-colored cottons by biotechnology.In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant 01/2006; 42(5):439-444. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glycinebetaine is an important quaternary ammonium compound generated in response to salt and other osmotic stresses in many organisms. Its synthesis requires the catalysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by a Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (BADH) gene that converts betaine aldehyde into glycinebetaine in some halotolerant plants. In this study, a BADH gene was over expressed in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) plants using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic alfalfa plants grown under 9‰ NaCl grew well; while non-transgenic control plants turned yellowish in color, wilted, and eventually died. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Northern blot hybridization analyses demonstrated that the BADH gene was transferred into the T2 generation and segregated in a Mendelian fashion. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing BADH showed significantly higher BADH enzyme activity and betaine contents when grown under 6‰ NaCl. Moreover, proline content in T2 lines were higher while electrolyte leakage and malonaldehyde content were lower in T2 lines compared with non-transgenic plants. These findings indicated that transgenic plants expressing BADH transgene exhibited higher salt tolerance than non-transgenic plants.Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 108(2). · 2.61 Impact Factor