Insect resistance of transgenic tobacco plants expressing delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis.
ABSTRACT The initiative B.thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt toxin) gene clones TH12 and TH48 contain two different classes of homologous genes, the 5.3 kb class and 6.6 kb class, respectively. Bt toxin genes of both classes, modified at the 5'-end and truncated at the 3'-end, can still be expressed to produce the insecticidal, truncated toxin proteins in E. coli. The modified Bt toxin genes were inserted into the plant binary expression vector pBin 437 (a derivative plasmid of pBin 19) and were transferred into tobacco by Ti plasmid-mediated gene transfer system. Southern blot and DNA slot blot analysis indicate that the Bt toxin genes have been integrated into tobacco genome at a copy number of 1 to 5. Northern blot analysis of polyA+ RNAs from progeny of the transgenic plants revealed that Bt toxin genes of both 5.3 kb and 6.6 kb classes were expressed in transgenic plants, though the transcripts were degraded to RNAs of lower molecular weights. In insecticidal test, 5 plants from the progeny of 5.3 kb class gene-transformed SR1 tobacco plants and 3 plants from those of 6.6 kb class gene-transformed plants were found to be toxic to the testing larvea of H.assulta. In comparison with the control, mortality of the insects fed on transgenic plants reached 40-50% and the growth of the survived insects was remarkably inhibited. These results indicate that the modified Bt genes of the 5.3 kb and 6.6 kb classes were expressed in transgenic plants and could confer on the transgenic plants a new character of insect resistance.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of 5′ and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) on expression of foreign genes, four plant-expression vectors pBG437, pBG438, pBG440 and pBG440ANOS containing expression cassettes ofGUS-NOS; Ω-GUS-NOS, Ω-GUS- 3′ UTR-NOS and Ω-GUS- 3′ UTR downstream of CaMV 35S promoter with double enhancer sequences respectively have been constructed. Results from a large number of transgenic tobacco plants show that the GUS activity of pBG440 transformed plants is the highest, being 5-fold that of pBG437 and 1.6-fold that of pBG438. Similar results have been obtained in transient expression by injection ofAgrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring these constructs intoN. benthamiana leaves. These results obtained at the whole plant level confirm the conclusion drawn from the transient expression studies in protoplast system that TMV-Ω fragment can be a translation enhancer and the 3′ UTR has a coordinate effect with Ω fragment to enhance foreign gene expression, but unlike the situation in transient expression in protoplast system, the 3′ UTR of TMV cannot act as a poly(A) tail nor as a transcription terminator in transgenic plants. The coordinate effect of 3′ UTR with Ω fragment needs the presence of a normal plant transcriptional terminator.Chinese Science Bulletin 08/2000; 45(18):1681-1685. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study reports an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of green-colored cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). A tissue culture procedure was optimized to induce callus formation from hypocotyl explants and subsequent differentiation into the embryogenic type. Callus formation could be induced by growing explants on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin. Among the four genotypes studied, embryogenic calli and plant regeneration were observed only in var. G9803. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of G9803 with the fiber-specific expansin gene GhExpl was achieved based on the establishment of these tissue culture methods. A total of 32 individual regenerants resistant to kanamycin were generated within 7 mo., with a transformation frequency of 17.8%. Transformation was confirmed by Southern blot analysis and RT-PCR. These results represent the first step towards genetic manipulation of the colors and fiber quality of green-colored cottons by biotechnology.In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant 01/2006; 42(5):439-444. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During their foraging activity, honey bees are often exposed to direct and residual contacts with pesticides, especially insecticides, all substances specifically designed to kill, repel, attract or perturb the vital functions of insects. Insecticides may elicit lethal and sublethal effects of different natures that may affect various biological systems of the honey bee. The first step in the induction of toxicity by a chemical is the interaction between the toxic compound and its molecular target. The action on the molecular target can lead to the induction of observable or non-visible effects. The toxic substance may impair important processes involved in cognitive functions, behaviour or integrity of physiological functions. This review is focused on the neural effects of insecticides that have repercussions on (a) cognitive functions, including learning and memory, habituation, olfaction and gustation, navigation and orientation; (b) behaviour, including foraging and (c) physiological functions, including thermoregulation and muscle activity.Apidologie 01/2012; 43:348-370. · 2.16 Impact Factor