Stimulation of adenosine A2 receptors induces catalepsy.
ABSTRACT The central administration of the adenosine A2 agonist CGS 21680 induced catalepsy in the rat. This effect was counteracted by the previous systemic administration of the adenosine antagonist theophylline or the D2 agonist BHT-920. These results are in agreement with the view that adenosine A2 receptors regulate central dopamine D2 transmission and underline the potential antipsychotic activity of A2 agonists.
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ABSTRACT: 1. The effects of a range of adenosine receptor-selective ligands on body temperature were investigated following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in conscious mice. The compounds tested were the non-selective adenosine receptor agonist 5'-N-ethyl-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), the adenosine A1 receptor-selective agonists cyclopentyl-adenosine (CPA), N6-(9R-phenyl-isopropyl)-adenosine (R-PIA) and N-(1S,trans)-[2-hydroxyclopentyl]-adenosine (GR79236), the A2a receptor selective agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxyamidoaden osine (CGS-21680), the A2b receptor agonist N-[(2-methylphenyl)methyl[adenosine (metrifudil) and the A3 receptor agonist N6-(4-aminophenylethyl)adenosine (APNEA). 2. NECA (0.01-1 microgram, i.c.v.), all of the A1-selective agonists (0.01-1 microgram, i.c.v.) and APNEA (0.1-3 micrograms i.c.v.) produced profound and dose-related hypothermia and sedation. However, CGS-21680 (0.1-10 micrograms i.c.v.) and metrifudil (0.01-1 microgram i.c.v.), produced only mild hypothermia at the highest doses tested. 3. The hypothermic response to the A1 receptor-selective agonists, GR79236 and R-PIA was dose-dependently antagonized by peripheral administration of either the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, approximately 40 and 30 fold rightward shifts of the dose-response curves respectively at 10 mg kg-1, i.p.), or the adenosine A1 receptor-selective antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, approximately 20 fold shift of the GR79236 dose-response curve at 1 mg kg-1, i.p.). The hypothermic response to APNEA was similarly dose-dependently antagonized by the A1 receptor-selective antagonist, DPCPX (5 fold shift at 0.1 mg kg-1, i.p.). 4.8(p-Sulphophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 10 and 30 mg kg-1, i.p.), a non-selective adenosine receptorantagonist that penetrates the blood brain barrier poorly, produced only modest antagonism (approximately 2 fold shift at 30 mg kg-1, i.p.) of the hypothermic response to GR79236.5. These data suggest that hypothermia induced by adenosine analogues in the conscious mouse is mediated via adenosine A1 receptors, which are probably located in the CNS.British Journal of Pharmacology 01/1995; 113(4):1386-90. · 4.41 Impact Factor
Article: Role of central and peripheral adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular responses to intraperitoneal injections of adenosine A1 and A2A subtype receptor agonists.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 1. The cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) were investigated in rats implanted with telemetry transmitters for the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA led to dose-dependent decreases in both blood pressure and heart rate. These effects of 0.3 mg kg(-1) CPA were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-xanthine (CPT), but not by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3). Injections (i.p.) of the peripherally acting nonselective adenosine antagonist 8-sulfophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) and the purported nonselective adenosine antagonist caffeine also antagonized the cardiovascular effects of CPA. 3. The adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 given i.p. produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. These effects of 0.5 mg kg(-1) CGS 21680 were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, but not by i.p. injections of the antagonists CPT, 8-SPT or caffeine. 4. Central administration (intracerebral ventricular) of CGS 21680 produced an increase in heart rate, but no change in blood pressure. MSX-3 given i.p. antagonized the effects of the central injection of CGS 21680. 5. These results suggest that adenosine A1 receptor agonists produce decreases in blood pressure and heart rate that are mediated by A1 receptors in the periphery, with little or no contribution of central adenosine A1 receptors to those effects. 6. The heart rate increasing effect of adenosine A2A agonists appears to be mediated by adenosine A2A receptors in the central nervous system. The blood pressure decreasing effect of adenosine A2A agonists is most probably mediated in the periphery.British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2005; 144(5):642-50. · 4.41 Impact Factor
Article: Synergistic interaction between adenosine A2A and glutamate mGlu5 receptors: implications for striatal neuronal function.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The physiological meaning of the coexpression of adenosine A2A receptors and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic striatal neurons is intriguing. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for a synergism between adenosine and glutamate based on subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGluR5) and adenosine A2A (A2AR) receptor/receptor interactions. Colocalization of A2AR and mGluR5 at the membrane level was demonstrated in nonpermeabilized human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells transiently cotransfected with both receptors by confocal laser microscopy. Complexes containing A2AR and mGluR5 were demonstrated by Western blotting of immunoprecipitates of either Flag-A2AR or hemagglutinin-mGluR5 in membrane preparations from cotransfected HEK-293 cells and of native A2AR and mGluR5 in rat striatal membrane preparations. In cotransfected HEK-293 cells a synergistic effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and c-fos expression was demonstrated upon A2AR/mGluR5 costimulation. No synergistic effect was observed at the second messenger level (cAMP accumulation and intracellular calcium mobilization). Accordingly, a synergistic effect on c-fos expression in striatal sections and on counteracting phencyclidine-induced motor activation was also demonstrated after the central coadministration of A2AR and mGluR5 agonists to rats with intact dopaminergic innervation. The results suggest that a functional mGluR5/A2AR interaction is required to overcome the well-known strong tonic inhibitory effect of dopamine on striatal adenosine A2AR function.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2002; 99(18):11940-5. · 9.68 Impact Factor