Nemeroff CB, Bissette G, Akil H, Fink M. Neuropeptide concentrations in the CSF of depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Corticotrophin-releasing factor, -endorphin and somatostatin. Br J Psychiatry 158: 59-63

Department of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 02/1991; 158(1):59-63. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.158.1.59
Source: PubMed


The CSF concentrations of CRF, somatostatin and beta-endorphin were determined in nine patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression with psychotic features. CSF samples were obtained at baseline in the depressed state, and again after a course of ECT. Concentrations of both CRF and beta-endorphin decreased after ECT, while the concentration of somatostatin increased, although the latter difference did not attain statistical significance. The increase in CSF concentrations of CRF and beta-endorphin in depressed patients is therefore seen to be state-dependent.


Available from: Charles B Nemeroff
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    • "The role of the CRF system in depression has been supported by clinical studies showing that depressed patients have higher CSF concentrations of CRF (Nemeroff et al. 1984), and depressed patients who died by suicide exhibit increased expression of CRF mRNA in the hypothalamus and PFC (Austin et al. 2003; Merali et al. 2004; Nemeroff et al. 1988; Raadsheer et al. 1994) as well as a reduction in CRF receptor binding density (Owens et al. 1991) and CRF receptor mRNA expression (Merali et al. 2004). Moreover, CSF concentrations of CRF are reduced by electroconvulsive therapy (Nemeroff et al. 1991) and antidepressant treatments (De Bellis et al. 1993; Heuser et al. 1998; Veith et al. 1993). Early relapse of depression is also associated with elevated concentrations of CSF CRF (Banki et al. 1992). "
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    Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 03/2014; 18. DOI:10.1007/7854_2014_306
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    • "CRF hypersecretion is linked to the pathophysiology of depression and certain anxiety disorders [68-70]. High levels of CRF are found in the cerebral spinal fluid and brain regions of patients with depression and PTSD, and these levels are reduced with antidepressant treatment [70-83]. Multiple genomic studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms on the CRF1 gene that are linked to depression, panic disorder, and PTSD [84-89]. "
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