Comparison of integrated evoked EMG between the hypothenar and facial muscle groups following atracurium and vecuronium administration

Department of Anaesthesia, University Hospital, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia (Impact Factor: 2.53). 05/1991; 38(3):318-23. DOI: 10.1007/BF03007621
Source: PubMed


In 17 healthy patients undergoing O2.N2O.isoflurane anaesthesia, following atracurium or vecuronium administration, we compared simultaneous integrated evoked electromyograms (IEEMGs) during spontaneous recovery of the adductor digiti minimi (ADM) and orbicularis oris (OOM) muscle groups in response to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation of the ulnar and facial nerves, respectively. In all patients, the onset of neuromuscular recovery occurred first in the OOM. The time required to recover to a T4/T1 = 0.70 +/- 0.01 (SD) was earlier in the OOM compared with the ADM muscles in both the atracurium (33.4 +/- 5 vs 46.5 +/- 8, P less than 0.005) and vecuronium (46.5 +/- 12 vs 60.3 +/- 20, P less than 0.005) groups. When the OOM attained a T4/T1 = 0.70 +/- 0.01, the simultaneous T4/T1 in the ADM was 0.29 +/- 0.15 (P less than 0.05) in the atracurium group and 0.41 +/- 0.16 (P less than 0.01) in the vecuronium group. We conclude that (1) the facial muscles (OOM) recover earlier than the hypothenar muscles (ADM) and (2) an EMG T4/T1 = 0.70 in the facial muscles may not indicate adequate recovery of neuromuscular function.

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  • Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica 02/1997; 48(1):35-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to a value > 0.70 is synonymous with adequate return of neuromuscular function, but there is little information available concerning the subjective experience that accompanies residual neuromuscular block wherein the TOF ratio is in the range of 0.70 to 0.90. Ten American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) physical status 1 volunteers were studied. Control measurements including grip strength in kilograms and ability to perform a 5-s head- and leg-lift. In addition, a standard wooden tongue depressor was placed between each subject's incisor teeth, and he or she was told not to let the investigator remove it. All subjects were easily able to retain the device despite vigorous attempts to dislodge it. Neuromuscular function was monitored with a Datex (Datex Medical Instrumentation, Inc., Tewksbury, MA) 221 electromyographic (EMG) monitor. TOF stimulation was given every 20 s, and the measured TOF fade ratio was continuously recorded. A 5 mg/kg bolus of mivacurium was then administered, and an infusion at 2 was begun. The infusion was continued until the TOF ratio decreased to < 0.70 and was adjusted to keep it in the range of 0.65 to 0.75. Signs and symptoms of weakness were recorded when the TOF ratio had been stable +/-0.03 for at least 10 min during an interval when there were no adjustments in the infusion. All tests noted previously were repeated at this time. The TOF ratio was then allowed to recover to 0.85-0.90. When stable at this level, all tests were repeated, and the infusion was discontinued. TOF measurements were continued until a ratio of 1.0 was attained and until a final set of observations was recorded. The TOF ratio in all subjects was reduced to < 0.70. No volunteers required intervention to maintain a patient airway, and the hemoglobin oxygen saturation while breathing air was > or = 96% at all times. TOF ratios < or = 0.90 were accompanied by diplopia and difficulty in tracking moving objects in all subjects. The ability to strongly oppose the incisor teeth did not return until the TOF ratio (on average) exceeded 0.85. A sustained 5-s head-lift was not achieved until the TOF ratio averaged 0.60 (range, 0.45-0.75). At a TOF ratio of 0.70, grip strength averaged 59% of control (range, 50-75%). With certain exceptions (vision, ability to clench the teeth tightly), there was wide variation in symptomatology between patients for any given TOF ratio. It is impossible to give reliable TOF break-points at which symptoms and signs will be present or absent. All subjects had significant signs and symptoms of residual block at a TOF ratio of 0.70; none considered themselves remotely "street ready" at this time. The authors believe that satisfactory recovery of neuromuscular function after mivacurium-induced neuromuscular block requires return of the TOF ratio to a value > 0.90 and ideally to unity.
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