Riding the glial monorail: a common mechanism for glial-guided neuronal migration in different regions of the developing mammalian brain.
ABSTRACT In vitro studies from our laboratory indicate that granule neurons, purified from early postnatal mouse cerebellum, migrate on astroglial fibers by forming a 'migration junction' with the glial fiber along the length of the neuronal soma and extending a motile 'leading process' in the direction of migration. Similar dynamics are seen for hippocampal neurons migrating along hippocampal astroglial fibers in vitro. In heterotypic recombinations of neurons and glia from mouse cerebellum and rat hippocampus, neurons migrate on astroglial processes with a cytology and neuron-glia relationship identical to that of homotypic neuronal migration in vitro. In all four cases, the migrating neuron presents a stereotyped posture, speed and mode of movement, suggesting that glial fibers provide a generic pathway for neuronal migration in developing brain. Studies on the molecular basis of glial-guided migration suggest that astrotactin, a neuronal antigen that functions as a neuron-glia ligand, is likely to play a crucial role in the locomotion of the neuron along glial fibers. The navigation of neurons from glial fibers into cortical layers, in turn, is likely to involve neuron-neuron adhesion ligands.
- SourceAvailable from: Valery Grinevich[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The central oxytocin system transformed tremendously during the evolution, thereby adapting to the expanding properties of species. In more basal vertebrates (paraphyletic taxon Anamnia, which includes agnathans, fish and amphibians), magnocellular neurosecretory neurons producing homologs of oxytocin reside in the wall of the third ventricle of the hypothalamus composing a single hypothalamic structure, the preoptic nucleus. This nucleus further diverged in advanced vertebrates (monophyletic taxon Amniota, which includes reptiles, birds, and mammals) into the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei with accessory nuclei (AN) between them. The individual magnocellular neurons underwent a process of transformation from primitive uni- or bipolar neurons into highly differentiated neurons. Due to these microanatomical and cytological changes, the ancient release modes of oxytocin into the cerebrospinal fluid were largely replaced by vascular release. However, the most fascinating feature of the progressive transformations of the oxytocin system has been the expansion of oxytocin axonal projections to forebrain regions. In the present review we provide a background on these evolutionary advancements. Furthermore, we draw attention to the non-synaptic axonal release in small and defined brain regions with the aim to clearly distinguish this way of oxytocin action from the classical synaptic transmission on one side and from dendritic release followed by a global diffusion on the other side. Finally, we will summarize the effects of oxytocin and its homologs on pro-social reproductive behaviors in representatives of the phylogenetic tree and will propose anatomically plausible pathways of oxytocin release contributing to these behaviors in basal vertebrates and amniots.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 02/2014; 8:31. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00031 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult neural precursor cells (NPCs) are predominantly located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles or in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These NPCs produce neuroblasts that normally migrate and integrate into the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, respectively. Following CNS damage due to disease or injury, NPCs can also migrate to the site of damage. Enhancement of NPC migration to sites of neural damage may increase their potential for repair but requires an understanding of processes that regulate basal and injury-induced migration so we can harness this potential. This review highlights the extrinsic factors and major intrinsic signalling pathways that regulate endogenous basal NPC migration to the olfactory bulb and the role of inflammatory mediators and chemokines in disease and injury-induced NPC migration.Neurochemistry International 09/2011; 59(3):382-93. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2010.12.024 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ectopic neurons are often found in the brains of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) patients, suggesting that alcohol exposure impairs neuronal cell migration. Although it has been reported that alcohol decreases the speed of neuronal cell migration, little is known about whether alcohol also affects the turning of neurons. Here we show that ethanol exposure inhibits the turning of cerebellar granule cells in vivo and in vitro. First, in vivo studies using P10 mice demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol not only reduces the number of turning granule cells but also alters the mode of turning at the EGL-ML border of the cerebellum. Second, in vitro analysis using microexplant cultures of P0-P3 mouse cerebella revealed that ethanol directly reduces the frequency of spontaneous granule cell turning in a dose-dependent manner. Third, the action of ethanol on the frequency of granule cell turning was significantly ameliorated by stimulating Ca(2+) and cGMP signaling or by inhibiting cAMP signaling. Taken together, these results indicate that ethanol affects the frequency and mode of cerebellar granule cell turning through alteration of the Ca(2+) and cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways, suggesting that the abnormal allocation of neurons found in the brains of FASD and FSA patients results, at least in part, from impaired turning of immature neurons by alcohol.Neuroscience 11/2010; 170(4):1328-44. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.07.059 · 3.33 Impact Factor