Auditory stimulus blocks were presented to 10 reading subjects. Each block consisted of 2 types of stimulus, standard (P = 90%) and deviant (P = 10%), delivered in a random order with short constant inter-stimulus intervals. The standard stimuli were 600 Hz. 80 dB SPL 50 msec sine wave bursts. In different blocks, the deviant stimuli differed from the standards either in frequency (650 Hz), intensity (70 dB) or duration (20 msec). Left- and right-ear stimulations were used in separate blocks. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded with 16 electrodes over both hemispheres. All the different types of deviant stimuli elicited an ERP component called the mismatch negativity (MMN). The MMN was larger over the right hemisphere irrespective of the ear stimulated whereas the N1 component, elicited by both standards and deviants, was larger over the hemisphere contralateral to the ear stimulated. The results provide further evidence for the view that the MMN reflects a neural mismatch process with a memory trace which automatically codes the physical features of the repetitive stimuli.
"[Doeller et al., 2003; Inui et al., 2006; Opitz et al., 1999; Sch€ onwiesner et al., 2007; Yvert et al., 2001]. Consistent with sensor-level data and previous findings, MMNm was larger on the right hemisphere [Paavilainen et al., 1991; Recasens et al., 2014]. Similarly, left-and right-ward lateralization of deviance-related effects in the Nbm and Pbm components, respectively, was in agreement with sensorlevel data. "
"It is worth noting that the contour tones (such as rising, falling and falling-rising tones in Mandarin), which can be recognized in the absence of speaker and speech context information even when carried by nonspeech stimuli (e.g., Xu et al., 2006a), may activate the long-term memory traces in the LH, as indicated by Mandarin contour tone studies which found that the across-category contour tones carried by nonspeech stimuli elicited greater MMN amplitude than within-category contour tones at the LH recording site (Xi et al., 2010). The MMNs elicited by duration and intensity contrasts were RH lateralized (Experiment 2), which is consistent with previous studies performed on speakers of nontonal languages (Giard et al., 1995; Paavilainen et al., 1991). As mentioned earlier, there is an additional neural source in the RH related to attention switch (Opitz et al., 2002; Rinne et al., 2000) which must have contributed to the RH lateralization of the MMNs elicited by duration and intensity contrasts in the present study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For nontonal language speakers, speech processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and musical processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., function-dependent brain asymmetry). On the other hand, acoustic temporal processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and spectral/pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry). In this study, we examine whether the hemispheric lateralization of lexical pitch and acoustic pitch processing in tonal language speakers is consistent with the patterns of function- and acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry in nontonal language speakers. Pitch contrast in both speech stimuli (syllable /ji/ in Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (harmonic tone in Experiment 1; pure tone in Experiment 2) were presented to native Cantonese speakers in passive oddball paradigms. We found that the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by lexical pitch contrast was lateralized to the left hemisphere, which is consistent with the pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., left hemisphere lateralization for speech processing) in nontonal language speakers. However, the MMN elicited by acoustic pitch contrast was also left hemisphere lateralized (harmonic tone in Experiment 1) or showed a tendency for left hemisphere lateralization (pure tone in Experiment 2), which is inconsistent with the pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., right hemisphere lateralization for acoustic pitch processing) in nontonal language speakers. The consistent pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry and the inconsistent pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry between tonal and nontonal language speakers can be explained by the hypothesis that the acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry is the consequence of a carryover effect from function-dependent brain asymmetry. Potential evolutionary implication of this hypothesis is discussed.
"Initial research demonstrated its sensitivity to rather basic differences between auditory stimuli, but more recent research has shown that the MMN can also be evoked when standards and deviants differ in only one phonetic feature (e.g., /b/ and /p/) ,  or in higher levels of speech processing such as their semantic, syntactical or lexical properties , . In conformance with fMRI data , there is evidence that the MMN is not, as previously believed, solely evoked in the bilateral auditory cortex ,  and the temporal lobes , , but also has prefrontal sources –, especially in speech perception , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants stand a good chance of developing satisfactory speech performance. Nevertheless, their eventual language performance is highly variable and not fully explainable by the duration of deafness and hearing experience. In this study, two groups of cochlear implant users (CI groups) with very good basic hearing abilities but non-overlapping speech performance (very good or very bad speech performance) were matched according to hearing age and age at implantation. We assessed whether these CI groups differed with regard to their phoneme discrimination ability and auditory sensory memory capacity, as suggested by earlier studies. These functions were measured behaviorally and with the Mismatch Negativity (MMN). Phoneme discrimination ability was comparable in the CI group of good performers and matched healthy controls, which were both better than the bad performers. Source analyses revealed larger MMN activity (155-225 ms) in good than in bad performers, which was generated in the frontal cortex and positively correlated with measures of working memory. For the bad performers, this was followed by an increased activation of left temporal regions from 225 to 250 ms with a focus on the auditory cortex. These results indicate that the two CI groups developed different auditory speech processing strategies and stress the role of phonological functions of auditory sensory memory and the prefrontal cortex in positively developing speech perception and production.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067696 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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