Article

Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy abrogates autoimmune demyelination.

Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461.
Annals of Neurology (Impact Factor: 11.91). 12/1991; 30(5):694-700. DOI: 10.1002/ana.410300510
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To define a role for the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in immune-mediated demyelination, the effect of anti-TNF antibody was investigated with a form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL/J mice induced by the adoptive transfer of myelin basic protein-(MBP)-sensitized T lymphocytes, an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). In three separate experiments, no mouse sensitized for EAE and then treated with anti-TNF by intraperitoneal injection developed signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Examination of CNS tissue from anti-TNF-treated animals showed no pathological changes. CNS tissue from control animals demonstrated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination. To test whether anti-TNF therapy was inhibitory to encephalitogenic cells, preincubation of MBP-sensitized T lymphocytes with anti-TNF in vitro prior to injection into recipient mice was performed, and resulted in no diminution of their ability to transfer EAE. In addition, spleen cells from anti-TNF-treated mice were capable of serial transfer of EAE, similar to spleen cells from control animals. However, spleen cells from anti-TNF-treated mice did not produce TNF on stimulation with MBP or concanavalin A. This study showed that anti-TNF antibody can inhibit effectively the development of EAE by interfering with the effector, rather than the induction, phase of the disease. Anticytokine therapy may have important applications in the development of new therapeutic strategies for MS.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
55 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective hematological analysis of the CSF from patients.
    Nanoscale 04/2014; · 6.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper defines selective harmonic elimination PWM (SHE-PWM) formulations for single-phase, interleaved converters. Through pre-calculated solutions, interleaved converters work at the same operating point while eliminating multiple low order harmonics. It is shown that multiple continuous solutions can be acquired for three-level interleaved waveforms. Extending the method to multiple levels further complicates the problem and reduces both the number and continuity of the solutions. Searching for solutions when the maximum possible number of harmonics, that can be minimised using this PWM method, is reduced confirms that such compromise can provide additional solutions with a minimal effect on the waveform’s harmonic distortion. The SHE-PWM considerations are verified with simulations and experimental results.
    IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics · 5.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocytes (OLGs) are generated late in development and myelination is thus a tardive event in the brain developmental process. It is however maintained whole life long at lower rate, and myelin sheath is crucial for proper signal transmission and neuronal survival. Unfortunately, OLGs present a high susceptibility to oxidative stress, thus demyelination often takes place secondary to diverse brain lesions or pathologies. OLGs can also be the target of immune attacks, leading to primary demyelination lesions. Following oligodendrocytic death, spontaneous remyelination may occur to a certain extent. In this review, we will mainly focus on the adult brain and on the two main sources of progenitor cells that contribute to oligodendrogenesis: parenchymal oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived progenitors. We will shortly come back on the main steps of oligodendrogenesis in the postnatal and adult brain, and summarize the key factors involved in the determination of oligodendrocytic fate. We will then shed light on the main causes of demyelination in the adult brain and present the animal models that have been developed to get insight on the demyelination/remyelination process. Finally, we will synthetize the results of studies searching for factors able to modulate spontaneous myelin repair.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 06/2014; 8:145.