To define a role for the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in immune-mediated demyelination, the effect of anti-TNF antibody was investigated with a form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL/J mice induced by the adoptive transfer of myelin basic protein-(MBP)-sensitized T lymphocytes, an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). In three separate experiments, no mouse sensitized for EAE and then treated with anti-TNF by intraperitoneal injection developed signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Examination of CNS tissue from anti-TNF-treated animals showed no pathological changes. CNS tissue from control animals demonstrated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination. To test whether anti-TNF therapy was inhibitory to encephalitogenic cells, preincubation of MBP-sensitized T lymphocytes with anti-TNF in vitro prior to injection into recipient mice was performed, and resulted in no diminution of their ability to transfer EAE. In addition, spleen cells from anti-TNF-treated mice were capable of serial transfer of EAE, similar to spleen cells from control animals. However, spleen cells from anti-TNF-treated mice did not produce TNF on stimulation with MBP or concanavalin A. This study showed that anti-TNF antibody can inhibit effectively the development of EAE by interfering with the effector, rather than the induction, phase of the disease. Anticytokine therapy may have important applications in the development of new therapeutic strategies for MS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major challenge in translational research is to reduce the currently high proportion of new candidate treatment agents for neuroinflammatory disease, which fail to reproduce promising effects observed in animal models when tested in patients. This disturbing situation has raised criticism against the currently used animal models in preclinical research and calls for improvement of these models. This seems a difficult task as the cause of failure is often not known. Here we propose a potentially useful strategy for investigating why a promising strategy fails as a guidance for improving the validity of the animal model(s).
European journal of pharmacology 05/2015; 759:14-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.030 · 2.53 Impact Factor
"The role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system has been demonstrated in rodents  and in humans [55-57]. Transgenic mice that constitutively express TNF-α in the CNS can trigger the development of a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor. We have previously shown that celecoxib inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in COX-2-deficient mice, suggestive for a mode of action involving COX2-independent pathways. In the present study, we tested the effect of a trifluoromethyl analogue of celecoxib (TFM-C) with 205-fold lower COX-2 inhibitory activity in two models of neuroinflammation, i.e. cerebellar organotypic cultures challenged with LPS and the EAE mouse model for multiple sclerosis. TFM-C inhibited secretion of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-17, enhanced that of TNF-α and RANTES, reduced neuronal axonal damage and protected from oxidative stress in the organotypic model. TFM-C blocked TNF-α release in microglial cells through a process involving intracellular retention, but induced TNF-α secretion in primary astrocyte cultures. Finally, we demonstrate that TFM-C and celecoxib ameliorated EAE with equal potency. This coincided with reduced secretion of IL-17 and IFN-γ by MOG-reactive T-cells and of IL-23 and inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Our study reveals that non-coxib analogues of celecoxib may have translational value in the treatment of neuro-inflammatory conditions.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83119. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083119 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity is unclear. In studies utilizing the murine MS model, EAE, both TNF-α- and TNFR1-deficient mice are resistant to disease and the use of anti-TNF or sTNF receptor antibodies reduced disease severity [17, 46, 47]. In addition, transgenic mice that over-express TNF-α spontaneously develop chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by episodes of inflammatory demyelination with progressive failure of remyelination. Prior studies using murine models of MS indicate that remyelination within the adult central nervous system (CNS) requires the expression and activity of TNFR2 and CXCR4 by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), promoting their proliferation and differentiation into mature oligodendrocytes. Here, we extend these studies by examining the role of TNFR2 in the expression of the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12, within the corpus callosum (CC) during cuprizone (CPZ) intoxication and by demonstrating that lentiviral-mediated gene delivery of CXCL12 to the demyelinated CC improves OPC proliferation and myelin expression during remyelination. Activated astrocytes and microglia express both TNFR1 and TNFR2 within the demyelinated CC. However, CPZ intoxicated TNFR2-/- mice exhibit loss of up-regulation of CXCL12 in astrocytes with concomitant decreases in numbers of CXCR4+ NG2+ OPCs within the CC. While CXCR4 antagonism does not affect OPC migration from subventricular zones into the CC, it decreases their proliferation and differentiation within the CC. Stereotactic delivery of lentivirus expressing CXCL12 protein into the CC of acutely demyelinated TNFR2-/- mice increases OPC proliferation and expression of myelin. In contrast, chronically demyelinated wild-type mice, which exhibit significant loss of astrocytes and OPCs, are unable to be rescued via CXCL12 lentivirus alone but instead required engraftment of CXCL12-expressing astrocytes for increased myelin expression. Our results show that TNFR2 activation induces CXCL12 expression in the demyelinated CC via autocrine signaling specifically within astrocytes, which promotes OPC proliferation and differentiation. In addition, gene delivery of critical pro-myelinating proteins might be a feasible approach for the treatment of remyelination failure in MS.
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