The amino acid sequence and oxygen-binding properties of the single hemoglobin of the cold-adapted Antarctic teleost Gymnodraco acuticeps.
ABSTRACT The complete amino acid sequence of the single hemoglobin of the Antarctic teleost Gymnodraco acuticeps has been determined. The alpha chain contains 142 amino acid residues; an acetylated seryl residue is at the amino terminal. The beta chain contains 146 residues. A very high degree of sequence identity has been found with hemoglobins of other Antarctic fishes. Oxygen binding is not modulated by pH and allosteric effectors. The Bohr and Root effects are absent, although specific amino acid residues, considered responsible of most of these functions, are conserved in the sequence, thus posing new questions about the molecular basis of these mechanisms. The low heat of oxygenation may be interpreted as one of the mechanisms involved in the process of cold adaptation.
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ABSTRACT: In vitro, and possibly in vivo, hemoglobin polymerization and red blood cell sickling appear to be widespread in codfish. In this article, we show that the hemoglobins of the two Arctic fish Lycodes reticulatus and Gadus morhua also have the tendency to polymerize, as monitored by dynamic light scattering experiments. The elucidation of the primary structure of the single hemoglobin of the zoarcid L. reticulatus shows the presence of a large number of cysteyl residues in α and β chains. Their role in eliciting the ability to produce polymers was also addressed by MALDI-TOF and TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The G.morhua globins are also rich in Cys, but unlike in L. reticulatus, polymerization does not seem to be disulfide driven. The widespread occurrence of the polymerization phenomenon displayed by hemoglobins of Arctic fish supports the hypothesis that this feature may bea response to stressful environmental conditions.International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 05/2011; 63(5):346-54. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidation of Hbs leads to the formation of different forms of Fe(III) that are relevant to a range of biochemical and physiological functions. Here we report a combined EPR/x-ray crystallography study performed at acidic pH on six ferric tetrameric Hbs. Five of the Hbs were isolated from the high-Antarctic notothenioid fishes Trematomus bernacchii, Trematomus newnesi, and Gymnodraco acuticeps, and one was isolated from the sub-Antarctic notothenioid Cottoperca gobio. Our EPR analysis reveals that 1), in all of these Hbs, at acidic pH the aquomet form and two hemichromes coexist; and 2), only in the three Hbs that exhibit the Root effect is a significant amount of the pentacoordinate (5C) high-spin Fe(III) form found. The crystal structure at acidic pH of the ferric form of the Root-effect Hb from T. bernacchii is also reported at 1.7 A resolution. This structure reveals a 5C state of the heme iron for both the alpha- and beta-chains within a T quaternary structure. Altogether, the spectroscopic and crystallographic results indicate that the Root effect and hemichrome stability at acidic pH are correlated in tetrameric Hbs. Furthermore, Antarctic fish Hbs exhibit higher peroxidase activity than mammalian and temperate fish Hbs, suggesting that a partial hemichrome state in tetrameric Hbs, unlike in monomeric Hbs, does not remove the need for protection from peroxide attack, in contrast to previous results from monomeric Hbs.Biophysical Journal 09/2009; 97(3):866-74. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since haemoglobins of all animal species have the same haem group, differences in their properties, including oxygen affinity, electrophoretic mobility and pH sensitivity, must result from the interaction of the prosthetic group with specific amino-acid residues in the primary structure. For this reason, fish globins have been the subject of extensive studies in recent years, not only for their structural characteristics, but also because they offer the possibility to investigate the evolutionary history of these ancient molecules in marine and freshwater species living in a great variety of environmental conditions. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the structure, function and phylogeny of haemoglobins of notothenioid fishes. On the basis of crystallographic analysis, the evolution of the Root effect is analysed. Adaptation of the oxygen transport system in notothenioids seems to be based on evolutionary changes, involving levels of biological organization higher than the structure of haemoglobin. These include changes in the rate of haemoglobin synthesis or in regulation by allosteric effectors, which affect the amount of oxygen transported in blood. These factors are thought to be more important for short-term response to environmental challenges than previously believed.Journal of Fish Biology 02/2010; 76(2):301-18. · 1.83 Impact Factor