Cells that produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) require the presence of signaling molecules since this cytokine is not normally expressed in a constitutive manner. It has been demonstrated that glial cells can produce TNF-alpha; however, the specific inducing molecules and their mechanism(s) of action have not been clearly defined. In this study, we examined the effect of human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on the expression of TNF-alpha by CH235-MG human malignant glioma cells. CH235-MG cells do not constitutively express TNF-alpha mRNA or protein; however, upon stimulation with IL-1 beta, these cells synthesize and secrete biologically active TNF-alpha. IL-1 beta induces the expression of a 1.9 kb TNF-alpha mRNA species. Kinetic analysis demonstrated optimum TNF-alpha mRNA expression after a 4 h exposure to IL-1 beta, and peak TNF-alpha protein production at 18 h. Cycloheximide (CHX), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, markedly increased expression of TNF-alpha mRNA in IL-1 beta stimulated CH235-MG cells, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is not required for astroglioma TNF-alpha gene expression. Nuclear run-off analysis demonstrates that IL-1 beta causes transcriptional activation of the TNF-alpha gene, and CHX enhances IL-1 beta-induced TNF-alpha transcription. Studies of TNF-alpha mRNA stability using actinomycin D show that IL-1 beta-induced TNF-alpha mRNA has a half-life of approximately 30 min, and CHX increases the half-life of IL-1 beta-induced TNF-alpha mRNA to approximately 210 min. These results indicate that IL-1 beta, a cytokine present in the central nervous system during some pathological disease states, is a potent inducer of TNF-alpha in human malignant glioma cells.
"Bearing these chalcone properties, cardamonin was suggested to affect cytokine expression in BV2 cells via suppression of NO production as NO stimulates the production of various inflammatory mediators including TNF-α and IL-1β . Apart from this, the inhibition of a proinflammatory cytokine such as TNF-α by cardamonin can result in suppression of other proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β . Since cardamonin inhibited the cytokine expression at both the protein and gene levels, we speculate that cardamonin exerts its anti-inflammatory effects at signal transduction pathways as well. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases has prompted investigation into innovative therapeutics over the last two decades. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the therapeutic choices to control and suppress the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases. However, NSAIDs-associated gastropathy has hampered their long term usage despite their clinical advancement. On the natural end of the treatment spectrum, our group has shown that cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone) isolated from Alpinia rafflesiana exerts potential anti-inflammatory activity in activated macrophages. Therefore, we further explored the anti-inflammatory property of cardamonin as well as its underlying mechanism of action in IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated microglial cells. In this investigation, cardamonin shows promising anti-inflammatory activity in microglial cell line BV2 by inhibiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The inhibition of NO and PGE(2) by cardamonin are resulted from the reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. Meanwhile the suppressive effects of cardamonin on TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were demonstrated at both protein and mRNA levels, thus indicating the interference of upstream signal transduction pathway. Our results also validate that cardamonin interrupts nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway via attenuation of NF-κB DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cardamonin also showed a consistent suppressive effect on the cell surface expression of CD14. Taken together, our experimental data provide mechanistic insights for the anti-inflammatory actions of cardamonin in BV2 and thus suggest a possible therapeutic application of cardamonin for targeting neuroinflammatory disorders.
International immunopharmacology 02/2012; 12(4):657-65. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2012.01.009 · 2.47 Impact Factor
"Thus the IL-1 system may provide an attractive target for therapeutic intervention to ameliorate the destructive consequences of neuroinflammation. TNF-α and IL-1β can also stimulate IL-6 production by astrocytes, which, in turn, acts in an autocrine matter to potentiate IL-6 release (Bethea et al., 1992; Fontana et al., 1982). Intracisternal inoculation of pneumococci caused a three-fold increase in CSF leukocyte counts in IL-6-deficient mice (Paul et al., 2003), suggesting that IL-6 does not contribute to CSF leukocytosis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The host immune/inflammatory response following CNS infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae remains poorly understood. Using a rat model of K. pneumoniae meningoencephalitis, we investigated the temporal profiles of brain proinflammatory cytokines and their cellular sources. Leukocyte counts significantly increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at 2 h after K. pneumoniae inoculation into the rat brain but were still much lower than blood leukocyte counts. However, concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6 in CSF were much higher than the simultaneously collected serum levels. The rapid increase in brain expression of these cytokines at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels occurred earlier than the onset of leukocytosis. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed the presence of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in astrocytes and microglia. Exposure of primary culture of glial cells to K. pneumoniae also resulted in time-dependent increases in the concentration of these cytokines in the culture media. Taken together, our results suggest that glial cells are an important early source of proinflammatory cytokines during K. pneumonia infection of CNS.
"GBM cell lines U-251MG, U105MG, D-65MG, and D-54MG were obtained as a gift from Dr. Darell D. Bigner (Duke University, Durham, NC) and have been described in detail (Ponten and MacIntyre, 1968; Ponten and Westermark, 1978; Bigner et al., 1981). CH-235MG was cultured from a portion of a GBM tumor removed in 1979 from a 60- year-old female and recently has been characterized (Bethea et al., 1992a). Karyotypic analyses of these cell lines have revealed that each is karyotypically unique with complex numerical and structural deviations . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypervascularity, focal necrosis, persistent cerebral edema, and rapid cellular proliferation are key histopathologic features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and malignant of human brain tumors. By immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence, we definitively have demonstrated the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in five out of five human glioma cell lines (U-251MG, U-105MG, D-65MG, D-54MG, and CH-235MG) and in eight human GBM tumor surgical specimens. In vitro experiments with glioma cell lines revealed a consistent and reliable relation between EGFr activation and VEGF production; namely, EGF (1-20 ng/ml) stimulation of glioma cells resulted in a 25-125% increase in secretion of bioactive VEGF. Conditioned media (CM) prepared from EGF-stimulated glioma cell lines produced significant increases in cytosolic free intracellular concentrations of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Neither EGF alone or CM from glioma cultures prepared in the absence of EGF induced [Ca2+]i increases in HUVECs. Preincubation of glioma CM with A4.6.1, a monoclonal antibody to VEGF, completely abolished VEGF-mediated [Ca2+]i transients in HUVECs. Likewise, induction by glioma-derived CM of von Willebrand factor release from HUVECs was completely blocked by A4.6.1 pretreatment. These observations provide a key link in understanding the basic cellular pathophysiology of GBM tumor angiogenesis, increased vascular permeability, and cellular proliferation. Specifically, EGF activation of EGFr expressed on glioma cells leads to enhanced secretion of VEGF by glioma cells. VEGF released by glioma cells in situ most likely accounts for pathognomonic histopathologic and clinical features of GBM tumors in patients, including striking tumor angiogenesis, increased cerebral edema and hypercoagulability manifesting as focal tumor necrosis, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 02/1993; 4(1):121-33. DOI:10.1091/mbc.4.1.121 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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