Second-order analysis of spatial clustering for inhomogeneous populations.
ABSTRACT Motivated by recent interest in the possible spatial clustering of rare diseases, the paper develops an approach to the assessment of spatial clustering based on the second-moment properties of a labelled point process. The concept of no spatial clustering is identified with the hypothesis that in a realisation of a stationary spatial point process consisting of events of two qualitatively different types, the type 1 events are a random sample from the superposition of type 1 and type 2 events. A diagnostic plot for estimating the nature and physical scale of clustering effects is proposed. The availability of Monte Carlo tests of significance is noted. An application to published data on the spatial distribution of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma in North Humberside is described.
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ABSTRACT: Metropolitan areas today are faced with pervasive changes of their urban spatial structure and are reshaped by postsuburbanization processes. In this study, one example of such postsuburban restructuring, the multinucleated monofunctional clustering of higher-order services, is investigated in the urban fringe of Vienna, Austria. The methodological framework uses microgeographic data for 2006 and applies a case-control point process modeling approach, which accounts for nonstationarity in first-order effects. The results show a relocation of highly specialized firms into the outer metropolitan ring, where these firms provide functional enrichment. This disagrees with the classical notion of a central place hierarchy. The urban fringe thus increasingly conforms to the core city. This spatial functional agglomeration shows statistically significant evidence of a bicentric urban structure, with the two new subcenters located in traditional suburban areas. Accordingly, Vienna's urban fringe is being altered by new postsuburban forms.Urban Geography 05/2013; 31(8):1100-1117. DOI:10.2747/0272-36220.127.116.110 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the last 40 years, disease outbreaks have significantly reduced coral populations throughout the Caribbean. Most coral‐disease models assume that coral diseases are contagious and that pathogens are transmitted from infected to susceptible hosts. However, this assumption has not been rigorously tested. We used spatial epidemiology to examine disease clustering, at scales ranging from meters to tens of kilometers, to determine whether three of the most common Caribbean coral diseases, (i) yellow‐band disease, (ii) dark‐spot syndrome, and (iii) white‐plague disease, were spatially clustered. For all three diseases, we found no consistent evidence of disease clustering and, therefore, these diseases did not follow a contagious‐disease model. We suggest that the expression of some coral diseases is instead a two‐step process. First, environmental thresholds are exceeded. Second, these environmental conditions either weaken the corals, which are then more susceptible to infection, or the conditions increase the virulence or abundance of pathogens. Exceeding such environmental thresholds will most likely become increasingly common in rapidly warming oceans, leading to more frequent coral‐disease outbreaks.Global Change Biology 12/2012; 18(12). DOI:10.1111/gcb.12019 · 8.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We develop a method to screen for local cartels. We first test whether there is statistical evidence of clustering of outlets that score high on some characteristic that is consistent with collusive behavior. If so, we determine in a second step the most suspicious regions where further antitrust investigation would be warranted. We apply our method to build a variance screen for the Dutch gasoline market.Journal of Economic Geography 06/2012; 15(2). DOI:10.2139/ssrn.2086604 · 3.26 Impact Factor