Fluoride, calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations in approximal plaque collected from young adults 1 and 24 h after toothbrushing with fluoride toothpastes.
ABSTRACT A within-subject double-blind cross-over study was carried out to examine whether the chemical composition of approximal plaque was altered 1 and 24 h after brushing with fluoride toothpaste. Three fluoride toothpastes were tested, containing either sodium monofluorophosphate with calcium glycerophosphate supplement and calcium carbonate abrasive, a combination of sodium monofluorophosphate and sodium fluoride with the same supplement and abrasive or sodium fluoride with a silica abrasive. A fluoride-free toothpaste with a silica abrasive acted as the control. 19 subjects used the toothpastes separately in randomised order for 1 week each prior to collection of plaque. Contralateral half-mouth approximal plaque samples were collected 1 and 24 h after the last use of each toothpaste. Fluoride, calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations of plaque were estimated. The results indicated that brushing with toothpastes containing fluoride and/or calcium supplements resulted in increased concentrations of these constituents in approximal plaque 1 h after brushing. These elevated levels of inorganic ions were not observed in the samples collected 24 h after brushing. It was concluded that the potentially beneficial effect of a raised concentration of fluoride and calcium in approximal plaque observed soon after brushing is lost during the following 24 h.
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ABSTRACT: While our knowledge of the dental caries process and its prevention has greatly advanced over the past fifty years, it is fair to state that the management of this disease at the level of the individual patient remains largely empirical. Recommendations for fluoride use by patients at different levels of caries risk are mainly based on the adage that more is better. There is a general understanding that the fluoride compound, concentration, frequency of use, duration of exposure, and method of delivery can influence fluoride efficacy. Two important factors are (1) the initial interaction of relatively high concentrations of fluoride with the tooth surface and plaque during application and (2) the retention of fluoride in oral fluids after application. Fluoride dentifrices remain the most widely used method of delivering topical fluoride. The efficacy of this approach in preventing dental caries is beyond dispute. However, the vast majority of currently marketed dentifrice products have not been clinically tested and have met only the minimal requirements of the FDA monograph using mainly laboratory testing and animal caries testing. Daily use of fluoride dental rinses as an adjunct to fluoride dentifrice has been shown to be clinically effective as has biweekly use of higher concentration fluoride rinses. The use of remineralizing agents (other than fluoride), directed at reversing or arresting non-cavitated lesions, remains a promising yet largely unproven strategy. High fluoride concentration compounds, e.g., AgF, Ag(NH3)2F, to arrest more advanced carious lesions with and without prior removal of carious tissue are being used in several countries as part of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. Most of the recent innovations in oral care products have been directed toward making cosmetic marketing claims. There continues to be a need for innovation and collaboration with other scientific disciplines to fully understand and prevent dental caries.BMC Oral Health 02/2006; 6 Suppl 1:S9.