Article

High-fidelity amplification using a thermostable DNA polymerase isolated from Pyrococcus furiosus.

University of Georgia, Атина, Georgia, United States
Gene (Impact Factor: 2.08). 01/1992; 108(1):1-6. DOI: 10.1016/0378-1119(91)90480-Y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A thermostable DNA polymerase which possesses an associated 3'-to-5' exonuclease (proofreading) activity has been isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium, Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu). To test its fidelity, we have utilized a genetic assay that directly measures DNA polymerase fidelity in vitro during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results indicate that PCR performed with the DNA polymerase purified from P. furiosus yields amplification products containing less than 10% of the number of mutations obtained from similar amplifications performed with Taq DNA polymerase. The PCR fidelity assay is based on the amplification and cloning of lacI, lacO and lacZ alpha gene sequences (lacIOZ alpha) using either Pfu or Taq DNA polymerase. Certain mutations within the lacI gene inactivate the Lac repressor protein and permit the expression of beta Gal. When plated on a chromogenic substrate, these LacI- mutants exhibit a blue-plaque phenotype. These studies demonstrate that the error rate per nucleotide induced in the 182 known detectable sites of the lacI gene was 1.6 x 10(-6) for Pfu DNA polymerase, a greater than tenfold improvement over the 2.0 x 10(-5) error rate for Taq DNA polymerase, after approx. 10(5)-fold amplification.

0 Followers
 · 
161 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic proteins are produced in microbes, mammalian cell lines, and body fluids by applying recombinant DNA technology. They are required for compensating the deficiency of essential proteins in patients. Animal bioreactors producing such valuable bio-pharmaceuticals in body fluids have lately emerged as efficient and cost-effective expression systems. Promoters, along with other regulatory elements of genes coding for milk proteins, have been cloned from few species for directing the expression of desired proteins in the milk of farm animals. However, buffaloes, which are the second largest source of milk production in the world, have remained unexplored for such use. Since mammary epithelial cell-specific β-casein is the most abundantly expressed protein found in buffalo milk, we have isolated the promoter region and the transcriptional regulatory element along with exon 1, Intron 1 and partial exon 2 of the β-casein gene from the genome of the Indian river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and have characterized the same (GenBank accession no. KF612339). Mammary epithelial cells of buffalo and human (MCF7) expressed Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) upon transfection with the construct where egfp was cloned under the β-casein promoter. Transfected HEK-293 cells failed to express EGFP. Transgenic female mice generated using this construct expressed EGFP in the milk gland during lactation, without leaky expression in any other organs. This promoter also drove expression of recombinant human Interferonγ suggesting its use for expressing recombinant bio-pharmaceuticals in the milk of buffalo or other farm animals. Additionally, this may also allow breast gland-specific gene expression for remediation of breast gland-associated diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Biotechnology 02/2015; 198. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.02.001 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of multiple templates using common primers is used in a wide variety of molecular biological techniques. However, abundant templates sometimes obscure the amplification of minor species containing the same primer sequences. To overcome this challenge, we used oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) to inhibit amplification of undesired template sequences without affecting amplification of control sequences lacking complementarity to the ORNs. ORNs were effective at very low concentrations, with IC50 values for ORN-mediated suppression on the order of 10 nM. DNA polymerases that retain 3'-5' exonuclease activity, such as KOD and Pfu polymerases, but not those that retain 5'-3' exonuclease activity, such as Taq polymerase, could be used for ORN-mediated suppression. ORN interference-PCR (ORNi-PCR) technology should be a useful tool for both molecular biology research and clinical diagnosis.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113345. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113345 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DNA replication in bacteria is accomplished by a multicomponent replicase, the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (pol III HE). The three essential components of the pol III HE are the í µí»¼ polymerase, the í µí»½ sliding clamp processivity factor, and the DnaX clamp-loader complex. We report here the assembly of the functional holoenzyme from Thermus thermophilus (Tth), an extreme thermophile. The minimal holoenzyme capable of DNA synthesis consists of í µí»¼, í µí»½ and DnaX (í µí¼ and í µí»¾), í µí»¿ and í µí»¿ í® í° components of the clamp-loader complex. The proteins were each cloned and expressed in a native form. Each component of the system was purified extensively. The minimum holoenzyme from these five purified subunits reassembled is sufficient for rapid and processive DNA synthesis. In an isolated form the í µí»¼ polymerase was found to be unstable at temperatures above 65 ∘ C. We were able to increase the thermostability of the pol III HE to 98 ∘ C by addition and optimization of various buffers and cosolvents. In the optimized buffer system we show that a replicative polymerase apparatus, Tth pol III HE, is capable of rapid amplification of regions of DNA up to 15,000 base pairs in PCR reactions.
    01/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/837842