Photochemical coatings for the prevention of bacterial colonization.
ABSTRACT Biomaterials are being used with increasing frequency for tissue substitution. Implantable, prosthetic devices are instrumental in the saving of patients' lives and enhancing the quality of life for many others. However, the greatest barrier to expanding the use of biomedical devices is the high probability of bacterial adherence and proliferation, causing very difficult and often untreatable medical-device centered infections. The difficulty in treating such infections results in great danger to the patient, and usually retrieval of the device with considerable pain and suffering. Clearly, development of processes that make biomedical devices resistant to bacterial adherence and colonization would have widespread application in the field of biomedical technology. A photochemical surface modification process is being investigated as a generic means of applying antimicrobial coatings to biomedical devices. The photochemical process results in covalent immobilization of coatings to all classes of medical device polymers. A discussion of the photochemical surface modification process and preliminary results demonstrating the success of photochemical coatings in formulating microbial-resistant surfaces are presented in this paper.
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ABSTRACT: Biomaterials are being used with increasing frequency for tissue substitution. Complex devices such as total joint replacements and the total artificial heart represent combinations of polymers and metal alloys for system and organ replacement. The major barriers to the extended use of these devices are the possibility of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials, which causes biomaterial-centered infection, and the lack of successful tissue integration or compatibility with biomaterial surfaces. Interactions of biomaterials with bacteria and tissue cells are directed not only by specific receptors and outer membrane molecules on the cell surface, but also by the atomic geometry and electronic state of the biomaterial surface. An understanding of these mechanisms is important to all fields of medicine and is derived from and relevant to studies in microbiology, biochemistry, and physics. Modifications to biomaterial surfaces at an atomic level will allow the programming of cell-to-substratum events, thereby diminishing infection by enhancing tissue compatibility or integration, or by directly inhibiting bacterial adhesion.Science 10/1987; 237(4822):1588-95. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A family of peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity has been isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. It consists of two closely related peptides that are each 23 amino acids and differ by two substitutions. These peptides are water soluble, nonhemolytic at their effective antimicrobial concentrations, and potentially amphiphilic. At low concentrations they inhibit growth of numerous species of bacteria and fungi and induce osmotic lysis of protozoa. The sequence of a partial cDNA of the precursor reveals that both peptides derive from a common larger protein. These peptides appear to represent a previously unrecognized class of vertebrate antimicrobial activities.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1987; 84(15):5449-53. · 9.74 Impact Factor