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# Operators preserving orthogonality are isometries

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Section A Mathematics (Impact Factor: 0.64). 01/1993; DOI: 10.1017/S0308210500029528

Source: arXiv

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**ABSTRACT:**The results presented in this dissertation refer to the geometry of Minkowski spaces, i.e., of real finite-dimensional Banach spaces. First we study geometric properties of radial projections of bisectors in Minkowski spaces, especially the relation between the geometric structure of radial projections and Birkhoff orthogonality. As an application of our results it is shown that for any Minkowski space there exists a number, which plays somehow the role that $\sqrt2$ plays in Euclidean space. This number is referred to as the critical number of any Minkowski space. Lower and upper bounds on the critical number are given, and the cases when these bounds are attained are characterized. Moreover, with the help of the properties of bisectors we show that a linear map from a normed linear space $X$ to another normed linear space $Y$ preserves isosceles orthogonality if and only if it is a scalar multiple of a linear isometry. Further on, we examine the two tangent segments from any exterior point to the unit circle, the relation between the length of a chord of the unit circle and the length of the arc corresponding to it, the distances from the normalization of the sum of two unit vectors to those two vectors, and the extension of the notions of orthocentric systems and orthocenters in Euclidean plane into Minkowski spaces. Also we prove theorems referring to chords of Minkowski circles and balls which are either concurrent or parallel. All these discussions yield many interesting characterizations of the Euclidean spaces among all (strictly convex) Minkowski spaces. In the final chapter we investigate the relation between the length of a closed curve and the length of its midpoint curve as well as the length of its image under the so-called halving pair transformation. We show that the image curve under the halving pair transformation is convex provided the original curve is convex. Moreover, we obtain several inequalities to show the relation between the halving distance and other quantities well known in convex geometry. It is known that the lower bound for the geometric dilation of rectifiable simple closed curves in the Euclidean plane is $\pi/2$, which can be attained only by circles. We extend this result to Minkowski planes by proving that the lower bound for the geometric dilation of rectifiable simple closed curves in a Minkowski plane $X$ is analogously a quarter of the circumference of the unit circle $S_X$ of $X$, but can also be attained by curves that are not Minkowskian circles. In addition we show that the lower bound is attained only by Minkowskian circles if the respective norm is strictly convex. Also we give a sufficient condition for the geometric dilation of a closed convex curve to be larger than a quarter of the perimeter of the unit circle. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We consider the Birkhoff-James orthogonality in normed spaces and classes of linear mappings exactly and approximately preserving this relation. Some related stability problems are posed.Banach Journal of Mathematical Analysis 01/2007; 1(2007). · 0.41 Impact Factor -
##### Article: On a ρ-orthogonality

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**ABSTRACT:**In a normed space we introduce an exact and approximate orthogonality relation connected with “norm derivatives” r¢±{\rho^{\prime}_{\pm}} . We also consider classes of linear mappings preserving (exactly and approximately) this kind of orthogonality. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010)Primary 46B20-46C50-Secondary 39B82 KeywordsOrthogonality-approximate orthogonality-orthogonality preserving mappings-norm derivativeAequationes Mathematicae 01/2010; 80(1):45-55. · 0.42 Impact Factor

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