Morpholine antifungals and their mode of action.
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ABSTRACT: Addition of Ca2+ (1 to 10 mM) to submerged cultures of Penicillium cyclopium induces conidiation. Ca2+ induced an increase in cytosolic pH from approximately 7.00 to > 7.60 in less than 10 min, as determined with the fluorescent pH probe fluorescein. Measurement of the H(+)-ATPase activity in total membrane fractions did not show any stable activation in vivo as a result of Ca2+ treatment. By fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy, it was observed that vegetative hyphae exhibit a tip-to-base pH gradient, with the tip being more acidic. Ca2+ caused this gradient to dissipate within 10 min. The effect of several agents that are supposed to cause internal acidification, by different means, on conidiation was tested. Concentrations of these agents that did not significantly affect growth but inhibited Ca(2+)-induced conidiation also prevented the intracellular alkalinization observed after exposure to the cation. Calcium channel blockers (lanthanum, cobalt, verapamil, and nifedipine) were not able to inhibit Ca(2+)-induced conidiation, although their effect on calcium uptake was not evaluated. However, the combined results point towards externally bound Ca2+ as the primary agent of conidiation induction, causing changes in plasma membrane function which disrupt the pH gradient observed during apical growth.Journal of Bacteriology 02/1993; 175(3):879-86. · 2.69 Impact Factor
- Progress in Lipid Research 02/1993; 32(4):357-416. DOI:10.1016/0163-7827(93)90016-P · 12.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Magnaporthe grisea ERG2 gene, encoding delta 8-->delta 7 sterol isomerase, was isolated from a genomic library by heterologous hybridization to a fragment of the Ustilago maydis ERG2 gene. The isolated gene contained a reading frame of 745 bp which encoded a protein of 221 amino acids. The coding region was interrupted by a single putative 79-bp-long intron. The deduced amino-acid sequence exhibited similarity to the ERG2 gene products of U. maydis and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, particularly in the central region of the proteins. The NH2-terminal of all three proteins contained a long stretch of amino acids that were strongly hydrophobic, suggesting that they may function by anchoring the protein to a membrane surface. The M. grisea ERG2 gene complemented a U. maydis deletion mutant in which the ERG2 gene had been removed using a one-step gene replacement procedure. The delta 8-->delta 7 sterol isomerase produced by the M. grisea ERG2 gene exhibited a level of sensitivity to the sterol biosynthesis inhibitor, tridemorph, similar to that of the enzyme derived from the U. maydis ERG2 gene.Current Genetics 06/1994; 25(6):531-7. DOI:10.1007/BF00351674 · 1.71 Impact Factor