Phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging.
ABSTRACT Phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combines the flow-dependent contrast of phase contrast MRI with the ability of cardiac cine imaging to produce images throughout the cardiac cycle. Two pulse sequence types are used for sensitivity to flow in one direction, whereas four are needed for sensitivity in all directions. Several alternatives for synchronization of the data to the cardiac cycle exist. Retrospectively interpolated methods can image the entire cardiac cycle efficiently. Rapid interleaving of the various sequence types ensures immunity to motion misregistration. The technique produces images in which contrast is related to flow velocity as well as magnitude images such as those of conventional cine MRI. The data can be interpreted qualitatively to demonstrate the presence, magnitude, and direction of flow, and quantitatively to provide estimates of flow velocity, volume flow rate, and displaced volumes. Phase contrast cine MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of aortic dissections, in the study of flow distributions in large vessels such as pulmonary arteries, as well as in smaller vessels such as carotid and basilar arteries, and in the evaluation of complex anatomical variants. Future developments are expected to reduce imaging time and expand the quantitative applications.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Norbert J Pelc, May 16, 2015
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Article: Phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging.
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ABSTRACT: With improvements in surgical and medical management, patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often living well into adulthood. MRI provides critical data for diagnosis and monitoring of these patients, yielding information on cardiac anatomy, blood flow, and cardiac function. Though historically these exams have been complex and lengthy, four-dimensional (4D) flow is emerging as a single fast technique for comprehensive assessment of CHD. The 4D flow consists of a volumetric time-resolved acquisition that is gated to the cardiac cycle, providing a time-varying vector field of blood flow as well as registered anatomic images. In this article, we provide an overview of MRI evaluation of congenital heart disease by means of example of three relatively common representative conditions: tetralogy of Fallot, aortic coarctation, and anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Then 4D flow data acquisition, data correction, and postprocessing techniques are reviewed. We conclude with several examples that highlight the comprehensive nature of the evaluation of congenital heart disease with 4D flow. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jmri.24856 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to validate phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) measurements of a steady flow through a severe stenotic phantom using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The study was performed in an axisymmetric 87 % area stenosis model using an inlet Reynolds number (Re) of 160, corresponding to a jet Re of 444. Velocity patterns and estimated fluid shear stresses from three modalities were analyzed and compared qualitatively and quantitatively. Visual analysis via contour subtraction and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for flow velocities and less agreement for maximum shear stress (MSS). The Pearson's coefficients of correlation between PC-MRI and PIV were 0.97 for the velocity field and 0.82 for the MSS. The corresponding parameters between PC-MRI and CFD were 0.96 and 0.84, respectively. Findings indicate that PC-MRI can be implemented to estimate velocity flow fields and MSS; however, this method is not sufficiently accurate to quantify the MSS at regions of high shear rate.MAGMA Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics Biology and Medicine 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10334-014-0476-x · 1.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cine Phase Contrast (CPC) MRI offers unique insight into localized skeletal muscle behavior by providing the ability to quantify muscle strain distribution during cyclic motion. Muscle strain is obtained by temporally integrating and spatially differentiating CPC-encoded velocity. The aim of this study was to quantify measurement accuracy and precision and to describe error propagation into displacement and strain. Using an MRI-compatible jig to move a B-gel phantom within a 1.5T MRI bore, CPC-encoded velocities were collected. The three orthogonal encoding gradients (through plane, frequency, and phase) were evaluated independently in post-processing. Two systematic error types were corrected: eddy current-induced bias and calibration-type error. Measurement accuracy and precision were quantified before and after removal of systematic error. Through plane- and frequency-encoded data accuracy were within 0.4 mm/s after removal of systematic error – a 70% improvement over the raw data. Corrected phase-encoded data accuracy was within 1.3 mm/s. Measured random error was between 1 to 1.4 mm/s, which followed the theoretical prediction. Propagation of random measurement error into displacement and strain was found to depend on the number of tracked time segments, time segment duration, mesh size, and dimensional order. To verify this, theoretical predictions were compared to experimentally calculated displacement and strain error. For the parameters tested, experimental and theoretical results aligned well. Random strain error approximately halved with a two-fold mesh size increase, as predicted. Displacement and strain accuracy were within 2.6 mm and 3.3%, respectively. These results can be used to predict the accuracy and precision of displacement and strain in user-specific applications.Journal of Biomechanics 11/2014; 48(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.10.035 · 2.50 Impact Factor