Clinical observations and systematic studies of autogynephilia.J. Sex Marital Ther. 17: 235-251

Gender Identity Clinic, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (Impact Factor: 1.27). 02/1991; 17(4):235-51. DOI: 10.1080/00926239108404348
Source: PubMed


The term autogynephilia denotes a male's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman. This term subsumes transvestism as well as erotic ideas or situations in which women's garments per se play a small role or none at all. This review article presents clinical examples of the lesser known types of autogynephilia (i.e., those in which the element of cross-dressing is secondary or entirely absent), sketches earlier attempts to label and conceptualize these phenomena, summarizes recent quantitative studies exploring the relationships between autogynephilia and other psychosexual variables (e.g., heterosexual attraction), and speculates on the etiology of autogynephilia and its relationship to transsexualism. It is concluded that the concept of autogynephilia is needed to fill a gap in our current battery of concepts and categories for thinking about gender identity disorders.

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    • "Within the paraphilias, fraternal birth order has been examined mostly in pedohebephilia and autogynephilia (a male’s sexual interest in himself in a female or feminized form; Blanchard, 1989a, 1991), but also in exhibitionism and transvestism. None has thus far been associated with a birth order effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: Whether homosexuality should be described as one among many paraphilic sexual interests or an altogether different dimension of sexual interest has long been discussed in terms of its political and social implications. The present article examined the question instead by comparing the major correlates and other features of homosexuality and of the paraphilias, including prevalence, sex ratio, onset and course, fraternal birth order, physical height, handedness, IQ and cognitive neuropsychological profile, and neuroanatomy. Although those literatures remain underdeveloped, the existing findings thus far suggest that homosexuality has a pattern of correlates largely, but not entirely, distinct from that identified among the paraphilias. At least, if homosexuality were deemed a paraphilia, it would be relatively unique among them, taxonometrically speaking.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 01/2012; 41(1):237-47. DOI:10.1007/s10508-012-9900-3 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Autogynephilia among homosexual MTFs, because of largely unspecified aspects of their development (see Ovesey & Person, 1976), was presumed to be extremely rare or nonexistent. These individuals were said to be sexually aroused, not by the thought or image of the " woman within, " but by actual physical characteristics of other biological males (Blanchard, 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: In a series of important but now highly controversial articles, Blanchard examined associations of sexual orientation and transvestic fetishism among male-to-female (MTF) transgender persons in Toronto, Canada. Transvestic fetishism was rare among the homosexuals but prevalent among the non-homosexuals. Subtypes of non-homosexual MTFs (heterosexual, bisexual, and asexual) were consistently high with regard to transvestic fetishism. Non-linear associations of a continuous measurement of sexual attraction to women (gynephilia) and transvestic fetishism were interpreted in terms of an etiological hypothesis in which transvestic fetishism interferes with the early development of heterosexuality. Blanchard concluded that homosexual versus non-homosexual sexual orientation is a dominant and etiologically significant axis for evaluating and understanding this population. We further assessed these findings among 571 MTFs from the New York City metropolitan area. Using the Life Chart Interview, multiple measurements of transvestic fetishism were obtained and classified as lifetime, lifecourse persistent, adolescent limited, and adult onset. Large (but not deterministic) differences in lifetime, lifecourse persistent, and adolescent limited transvestic fetishism were found between the homosexuals and non-homosexuals. Contrary to Blanchard, differences in transvestic fetishism were observed across subtypes of the non-homosexuals, and linear (not curvilinear) associations were found along a continuous measurement of gynephilia and transvestic fetishism. Age and ethnicity, in addition to sexual orientation, were found to be statistically significant predictors of transvestic fetishism. The clinical, etiological, and sociopolitical implications of these findings are discussed.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 04/2011; 40(2):247-57. DOI:10.1007/s10508-009-9579-2 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "He saw this as a likeness to heterosexual pair bonding: after years of marriage, sexual excitement with a partner tends to decrease, however one continues to be just as attached to that person. Similarly the desire to have a female body can continue in some permanent " love-bond " (Blanchard, 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents a comprehensive model to explain the development of the various manifestations of gender variance amongst birth-assigned males and females. As background, two previous theories of gender-variance development proposed by Richard Docter and Ray Blanchard are introduced. The model presented in this article is called the identity-defense model of gender-variance development because it has two parts. Firstly, biological factors and early childhood influences determine whether and to what degree a gender-variant identity develops. Secondly, personality and environment factors determine whether defense mechanisms are used to repress the gender variance. If defense mechanisms are used, then the resultant outcome is either a nonclassical transsexual or cross-dresser, depending on the degree of gender variance. If defense mechanisms are not used, then classical transsexuals or drag artists are the likely outcomes, again depending on the level of the gender variance. Sexual orientation and cross-gender eroticism are strongly correlated with the gender-variant outcomes in the model, and this is explained in the model using Bem's (1996)4. Bem , D. J. 1996. Exotic becomes erotic: A developmental theory of sexual orientation. Psychological Review., 103: 320–335. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references exotic becomes erotic developmental theory of sexual orientation.
    International Journal of Transgenderism 07/2010; 12(3-3):125-138. DOI:10.1080/15532739.2010.514217
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