Differential sensitivity of calbindin and PARV immunoreactive cells in the striatum to excitotoxins
ABSTRACT The neurotoxic effects of ibotenic acid, quinolinic acid and kainic acid on cells in the rat striatum were investigated using immunocytochemistry with antibodies to the calcium binding proteins, calbindin and parvalbumin. The results showed that both ibotenic acid and quinolinic acid affected calbindin and parvalbumin cells to the same extent. However, parvalbumin immunopositive neurons were more sensitive than calbindin immunopositive neurons to the neurotoxic effects of kainic acid. Although the reason for this increased sensitivity of parvalbumin striatal neurons to kainic acid is unclear, these results suggest that the neurotoxicity produced by kainic acid is different to that occurring with quinolinic acid and ibotenic acid.
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- "PV(ϩ) interneurons are thought to exert an inhibitory control over excitatory pyramidal cells through recurrent inhibition; CR(ϩ) interneurons , on the other hand, mainly establish synapses with other interneurons thereby supporting the synchronization of local neuronal networks (Gulyas et al 1996). It is interesting to note that PV(ϩ) interneurons seem to be more vulnerable towards excitotoxicity than other subpopulations, especially than the CR(ϩ) subtype (Lukas and Jones 1994; Waldvogel et al 1991). "
ABSTRACT: The psychotomimetic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) in healthy humans and their ability to exacerbate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients have promoted a view of schizophrenia as being related to altered glutamatergic neurotransmission. This prompted us and others to develop animal models for psychosis based on a glutamatergic approach. Pharmacological induction of a state of impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission based on chronic, low-dose application of MK-801, a highly selective noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, revealed marked parallels between schizophrenia and our animal model. MK-801 altered the expression of NR1 splice variants and NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor in a pattern partially resembling the alterations detected in schizophrenia. Ultrastructurally, the number of gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA)ergic parvalbumin-positive interneurons was relatively decreased, a finding which again parallels observations in post mortem brain from schizophrenic patients. As a functional consequence, local inhibition of pyramidal cells which is largely mediated by recurrent axon collaterals, originating from GABAergic interneurons, was altered. Not unexpectedly, these animals showed cognitive deficits resembling findings in schizophrenic humans. These convergent lines of evidence suggest that our approach has a significant potential of serving as a model of the pathobiology of several aspects of psychosis and consequently could contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies.Biological Psychiatry 05/2006; 59(8):721-9. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.08.029 · 10.25 Impact Factor
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- "Although the physiological significance of these calcium-binding proteins in the SC is unclear, based on findings in other brain regions, their function has been linked to the modulation of neuronal firing patterns (Chard et al. 1993; Du et al. 1996; Kawaguchi and Kubota 1993; Li et al. 1995). In addition, their calcium buffering capacity may play an especially critical role in protection from N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity (Waldvogel et al. 1991) that can accompany high levels of evoked activity. "
ABSTRACT: The distribution of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin was examined in newborn and adult superior colliculus of cat and rhesus monkey using immunohistochemical techniques. In adult animals of both species, calbindin-immunoreactive neurons had a three-tiered arrangement: one band was present in the upper aspects of the superficial laminae, a second in the intermediate laminae, and a third in the deep laminae. The intermediate tier was less obvious in the monkey, whereas the deep tier was less pronounced in the cat. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons had a complementary distribution to calbindin-immunoreactive neurons within these laminae in both species, although the segregation of calbindin immunoreactivity and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the superficial laminae was not as precise in the monkey as it was in the cat. At birth, calbindin immunoreactivity in the newborns of both species was remarkably mature, with its three-tiered distribution clearly evident. By contrast, parvalbumin immunoreactivity was distinctly different in the newborn cat than in the newborn monkey: whereas parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the newborn monkey was already very similar to its adult-like pattern, the pattern in the newborn cat was quite immature. The superficial laminae of the newborn cat were virtually devoid of parvalbumin immunoreactivity, and, although the intermediate laminae displayed robust parvalbumin-immunoreactive neuropil, comparatively fewer parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were observed. Conspicuously few in number were the large multipolar neurons in the intermediate laminae, which give rise to the descending efferents to the brainstem. However, parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were present within the deep laminae, suggesting a ventral-to-dorsal maturational gradient in parvalbumin expression that parallels the ventral-to-dorsal gradient of neurogenesis. The differences in parvalbumin immunoreactivity observed between these two species at parturition are consistent with the advanced visual and visuomotor capabilities of the newborn monkey and the absence of visually related behaviors in the newborn cat.Experimental Brain Research 01/2002; 141(4):460-70. DOI:10.1007/s00221-001-0908-5 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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- "BrdU ϩ striatal cells expressed calbindin-D28K, a marker of medium spiny neurons of the caudate putamen (Waldvogel et al., 1991; Burke and Baimbridge, 1993) (Fig. 10). Similarly, we found an abundance of BrdU ϩ striatal cells that coexpressed GAD67, a characteristic marker for GABAergic neurons (Fig. 10). "
ABSTRACT: Neural progenitor cells persist throughout the adult forebrain subependyma, and neurons generated from them respond to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with enhanced maturation and survival. To induce neurogenesis from endogenous progenitors, we overexpressed BDNF in the adult ventricular zone by transducing the forebrain ependyma to constitutively express BDNF. We constructed a bicistronic adenovirus bearing BDNF under cytomegalovirus (CMV) control, and humanized green fluorescent protein (hGFP) under internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) control. This AdCMV:BDNF:IRES:hGFP (AdBDNF) was injected into the lateral ventricles of adult rats, who were treated for 18 d thereafter with the mitotic marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Three weeks after injection, BDNF averaged 1 microg/gm in the CSF of AdBDNF-injected animals but was undetectable in control CSF. In situ hybridization demonstrated BDNF and GFP mRNA expression restricted to the ventricular wall. In AdBDNF-injected rats, the olfactory bulb exhibited a >2.4-fold increase in the number of BrdU(+)-betaIII-tubulin(+) neurons, confirmed by confocal imaging, relative to AdNull (AdCMV:hGFP) controls. Importantly, AdBDNF-associated neuronal recruitment to the neostriatum was also noted, with the treatment-induced addition of BrdU(+)-NeuN(+)-betaIII-tubulin(+) neurons to the caudate putamen. Many of these cells also expressed glutamic acid decarboxylase, cabindin-D28, and DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa), markers of medium spiny neurons of the neostriatum. These newly generated neurons survived at least 5-8 weeks after viral induction. Thus, a single injection of adenoviral BDNF substantially augmented the recruitment of new neurons into both neurogenic and non-neurogenic sites in the adult rat brain. The intraventricular delivery of, and ependymal infection by, viral vectors encoding neurotrophic agents may be a feasible strategy for inducing neurogenesis from resident progenitor cells in the adult brain.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 10/2001; 21(17):6718-31. · 6.75 Impact Factor