H+,K-ATPase antibodies in autoimmune gastritis: observations on the development of pernicious anemia.
ABSTRACT The prevalence and development of antibodies to H+,K+-ATPase were investigated with a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 86 patients with autoimmune atrophic gastritis (type A). Sixty-nine of the patients had pernicious anemia, and 17 had simple atrophic gastritis. Elevated titers were found in 93% of pernicious anemia probands. Women had higher levels than men: 3.24 versus 1.58 U/l (p = 0.002) (upper reference limit, 0.55 U/l). The antibody levels did not change over 1-4 years, but a gradual decrease in titers over decades was observed. All patients with pernicious anemia had low levels of pepsinogen A, a product of the gastric chief and mucous neck cells (median, 8.5 micrograms/l; reference range, 10-90 percentile, 64.4-195.5 micrograms/l), and elevated serum gastrin values (greater than 55 pmol/l) were found in 87%. Serum pepsinogen A, but not serum gastrin, correlated with H+,K(+)-ATPase antibody titers (r = 0.35, p = 0.01). In the 17 cases with simple atrophic gastritis, H+,K(+)-ATPase antibodies correlated inversely with fundic mucosal gland destruction. The data indicate that H+,K(+)-ATPase antibody titers reflect the immune responsiveness of a given patient as well as the antigenic amount, dependent on the degree of mucosal destruction and the duration of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Oral tolerance (OT) means systemic immunological unresponsiveness to harmless antigens present in the gastrointestinal tract. We presumed that tolerance to these antigens may also protect self-proteins that show immunological similarity to the intestinal normal flora. To investigate the existence and in vivo relevance of such a tolerogenic molecular mimicry, we focused our attention to Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome type 1 (APS1) and Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome. APS1 is a human form of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) dysfunction with severely impaired central immunotolerance to a specific set of autoantigens, allowing investigation of tolerogenic mimicry by itself, without a disturbing background. HELLP syndrome is a mediocre manifestation of thrombotic microangiopathy, complicating pregnancy, with platelet-fibrin deposits in small blood vessels and transient development of autoantibodies. Impaired microcirculation in the liver is well described, while intestinal ischemia is possible but has not yet been studied. As the harmless nature of an antigen is essential for OT, ischemia-induced bacterial microinvasion represses this process. In case that oral tolerance to a bacterial homunculus is an existing way of self-protection and has an in vivo relevance when central tolerance is intact, significant intestinal ischemia--if present--is expected to promote autoimmunity in HELLP syndrome. We used an experimentally validated, highly reliable mathematical algorithm to predict the extent of immunological similarity between a certain autoantigen and intestinal bacteria. We found a strong negative correlation between the similarity of autoantigens to intestinal bacteria and the production of specific autoantibodies in APS1 (R=-0.70, P=0.002), while a positive correlation was observed in patients with predominantly the severe/moderately severe form of HELLP syndrome according to Mississippi classification (R=0.94, P=0.005). Autoantigen length inversely correlated with the production of autoantibodies in APS1 (R=-0.68, P=0.004). As a longer chain with more epitopes associates with an increased possibility of mimicry to any proteome, molecular mimicry in general--regarding at least major tissue-specific autoantigens--seems to be rather protective. Our calculations support the hypothesis that OT to an intestinal "bacterial homunculus" is an in vivo relevant mechanism of self-protection in humans, furthermore, HELLP syndrome presumably associates with significant intestinal ischemia and leak, resulting in transient autoimmunity via loss of OT.Molecular Immunology 04/2009; 46(8-9):1673-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
- Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 02/1991; 96(3):149-75. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anti-parietal cell antibody has been reported in nearly all patients with pernicious anaemia in past studies, in contrast with anti-intrinsic factor (IF) antibody which occurs in only 50-70% of such patients. However, observations in the more diverse patient population at our hospital suggest that these prevalences, originally described in predominantly elderly, white patients of European origin, no longer apply. Anti-IF antibody was found in 70% of the 324 patients, with blacks (84%) and Latin Americans (69%) having a significantly higher prevalence than whites (55%). In contrast, only 55% of the 266 patients tested had anti-parietal cell antibody. It was noteworthy that this low rate was similar in all racial groups. However, patients lacking anti-parietal cell antibody were significantly younger than those who had the antibody (54.8 +/- 17.8 vs 59.6 +/- 16.2 years, P = 0.022). Overall, a striking 30% of all patients had anti-IF antibody but not anti-parietal cell antibody, while only 13% had the latter antibody without having anti-IF antibody. This pattern was particularly striking among black patients. An interesting incidental observation was that gastrin levels were not associated with antibody status, but were significantly higher not only among women than among men but also among white and black patients than among Latin-American patients. The findings show that anti-parietal cell antibody is not found nearly as often in pernicious anaemia as has been reported in the past, and thus has no value as a diagnostic tool in pernicious anaemia. They also suggest clues to different expressions of pernicious anaemia or of its immunologic response, particularly among younger patients with the disease.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 08/1992; 89(1):74-7. · 3.41 Impact Factor