The nerve growth factor receptor gene is expressed in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues in the human fetus.
ABSTRACT In situ hybridization was used to study expression of beta-nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R) mRNA in the early human fetus. In 8- to 12-week old fetuses, high labelling was found over motoneurons along the entire length of the lateral motor column. High levels of NGF-R mRNA were also seen over most developing nerve cell bodies in both the dorsomedial and ventrolateral part of the dorsal root ganglia. Lower, but clearly specific labelling was detected over a subpopulation of cells in Auerbach's plexus in the intestines. Evidence for a non-neuronal expression of NGF-R mRNA came from labelling over a subpopulation of cells in glomeruli of the kidney in a 12-week old human embryo. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle anlagen were labelled as well as cells along peripheral nerve. The widespread expression of NGF-R mRNA in the human fetus suggests that the NGF-R is important for development of a variety of different tissues of both neuronal and non-neuronal origin.
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ABSTRACT: Several projects that would be used for nuclear physics research are at various stages of development or construction. The fixed target projects include a hadron facility now under construction at JAERI and an upgrade of the CEBAF 6 GeV electron facility at Jefferson Lab to 12 GeV. eRHIC is the proposed electron-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Jefferson Lab also proposed a project that combines a 25 GeV fixed target capability with an electron-ion collider, eLIC. The conceptual layouts for all the projects are presented as is the utilization of srf technology. The R&D opportunities are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Target-derived neurotrophins exert powerful synaptotrophic actions in the adult brain and are involved in the regulation of different forms of synaptic plasticity. Target disconnection produces a profound synaptic stripping due to the lack of trophic support. Consequently, target reinnervation leads to synaptic remodeling and restoration of cellular functions. Extraocular motoneurons are unique in that they normally express the TrkA neurotrophin receptor in the adult, a feature not seen in other cranial or spinal motoneurons, except after lesions such as axotomy or in neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We investigated the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) by retrogradely delivering this neurotrophin to abducens motoneurons of adult cats. Axotomy reduced the density of somatic boutons and the overall tonic and phasic firing modulation. Treatment with NGF restored synaptic inputs and firing modulation in axotomized motoneurons. When K252a, a selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinase activity, was applied to specifically test TrkA effects, the NGF-mediated restoration of synapses and firing-related parameters was abolished. Discharge variability and recruitment threshold were, however, increased by NGF compared with control or axotomized motoneurons. Interestingly, these parameters returned to normal following application of REX, an antibody raised against neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR)). In conclusion, NGF, acting retrogradely through TrkA receptors, supports afferent boutons and regulates the burst and tonic signals correlated with eye movements. On the other hand, p75(NTR) activation regulates recruitment threshold, which impacts on firing regularity. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing powerful synaptotrophic effects of NGF on motoneurons in vivo.Journal of Neuroscience 06/2010; 30(24):8308-19. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult skeletal muscle in mammals is a stable tissue under normal circumstances but has remarkable ability to repair after injury. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process involving the activation of various cellular and molecular responses. As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. The self-renewing proliferation of satellite cells not only maintains the stem cell population but also provides numerous myogenic cells, which proliferate, differentiate, fuse, and lead to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. The complex behavior of satellite cells during skeletal muscle regeneration is tightly regulated through the dynamic interplay between intrinsic factors within satellite cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche/microenvironment. For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. Here, we review some recent advances, with focuses on functions of satellite cells and their niche during the process of skeletal muscle regeneration.Physiological Reviews 01/2013; 93(1):23-67. · 30.17 Impact Factor