Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia: Epidemiology and Prognostic Factors

Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Clínic, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
The American review of respiratory disease (Impact Factor: 10.19). 09/1991; 144(2):312-8. DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/144.2.312
Source: PubMed


Over a period of 4 consecutive yr, 92 nonimmunosuppressed patients (21 women and 71 men aged 53 +/- 16 yr, means = SD) with critical acute respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2, 209 +/- 9 mm Hg) caused by severe community-acquired pneumonia were admitted to the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of a general hospital. The most frequent underlying clinical condition was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (44 patients, 48%). A total of 56 patients (61%) required mechanical ventilation for a mean period of 10.7 +/- 12.5 days, 29 of them (52%) needing PEEP (9.9 +/- 3.8 cm H2O). A group of 23 (25%) patients had criteria of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A causal microorganism was identified in 48 patients (52%), the two most frequent etiologies being Streptococcus pneumoniae (14, 15%) and Legionella pneumophila (13, 14%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5, 5%) was always associated with bronchiectasis. Mortality due to severe community-acquired pneumonia was 22% (20 patients). According to univariate analysis, mortality was associated with anticipated death within 4 to 5 yr, inadequate antibiotic treatment before RICU admission, mechanical ventilation requirements, use of PEEP, FIO2 greater than 0.6, coexistence of ARDS, radiographic spread of the pneumonia during RICU admission, septic shock, bacteremia, and P. aeruginosa as the cause of the pneumonia. Further, recursive partitioning analysis selected two factors significantly related to the prognosis: the radiographic spread of the pneumonia during RICU admission and the presence of septic shock.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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    • "A number of studies have documented mortality rates for patients with CAP admitted to ICU [5-7,9-22]. The considerable heterogeneity in admission policies, study design, guidelines compliance [21], and severity scoring in these studies probably accounts for the wide range of reported mortality rates and makes meaningful comparisons difficult. "
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    ABSTRACT: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common infectious reason for admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The GenOSept study was designed to determine genetic influences on sepsis outcome. Phenotypic data was recorded using a robust clinical database allowing a contemporary analysis of the clinical characteristics, microbiology, outcomes and independent risk factors in patients with severe CAP admitted to ICUs across Europe. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine mortality rates. A Cox Proportional Hazards (PH) model was used to identify variables independently associated with 28-day and six-month mortality. Data from 1166 patients admitted to 102 centres across 17 countries was extracted. Median age was 64 years, 62% were male. Mortality rate at 28 days was 17%, rising to 27% at six months. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the commonest organism isolated (28% of cases) with no organism identified in 36%. Independent risk factors associated with an increased risk of death at six months included APACHE II score (hazard ratio, HR, 1.03; confidence interval, CI, 1.01-1.05), bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (HR1.44; CI 1.11-1.87) and ventilator support (HR 3.04; CI 1.64-5.62). Haematocrit, pH and urine volume on day one were all associated with a worse outcome. The mortality rate in patients with severe CAP admitted to European ICUs was 27% at six months. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the commonest organism isolated. In many cases the infecting organism was not identified. Ventilator support, the presence of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, lower haematocrit, urine volume and pH on admission were independent predictors of a worse outcome.
    Critical care (London, England) 04/2014; 18(2):R58. DOI:10.1186/cc13812 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    • "The lack of specific and sensitive markers for aspiration complicates epidemiologic studies of aspiration pneumonia. Nevertheless, several studies have indicated that 5 to 15% of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases are associated with aspiration pneumonia.4-6 In one study comprised of patients with nursing home-acquired pneumonia and controls with CAP, the incidences of aspiration pneumonia were 18% and 5%, respectively.3 "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical characteristics of dysphagic elderly Korean patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia as well as to examine the necessity of performing a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in order to confirm the presence of dysphagia in such patients. The medical records of dysphagic elderly Korean subjects diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics as well as for VFSS findings. In total, medical records of 105 elderly patients (81 men and 24 women) were reviewed in this study. Of the 105 patients, 82.9% (n=87) were admitted via the emergency department, and 41.0% (n=43) were confined to a bed. Eighty percent (n=84) of the 105 patients were diagnosed with brain disorders, and 68.6% (n=72) involved more than one systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus, cancers, chronic cardiopulmonary disorders, chronic renal disorders, and chronic liver disorders. Only 66.7% (n=70) of the 105 patients underwent VFSS, all of which showed abnormal findings during the oral or pharyngeal phase, or both. In this study, among 105 dysphagic elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia, only 66.7% (n=70) underwent VFSS in order to confirm the presence of dysphagia. As observed in this study, the evaluation of dysphagia is essential in order to consider elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia, particularly in patients with poor functional status, brain disorders, or more than one systemic disease. A greater awareness of dysphagia in the elderly, as well as the diagnostic procedures thereof, particularly VFSS, is needed among medical professionals in Korea.
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 12/2012; 36(6):785-90. DOI:10.5535/arm.2012.36.6.785
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    • "Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen, and often causes a severe and life-threatening pneumonia [1,2]. Legionella pneumonia is frequently complicated with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which exaggerates the severity of this disease [3,4]. Despite aggressive supportive care, including antibiotic therapy and oxygen supplementation, high mortality rates have been reported, especially in immunocompromised patients [3,5,6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygen supplementation is commonly given to the patients with severe pneumonia including Legionella disease. Recent data suggested that apoptosis may play an important role, not only in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumonia, but also in oxygen-induced tissue damage. In the present study, the lethal sensitivity to Legionella pneumonia were compared in the setting of hyperoxia between wild-type and Fas-deficient mice. C57BL/6 mice and B6.MRL-Faslpr mice characterized with Fas-deficiency were used in this study. After intratracheal administration of L. pneumophila, mice were kept in hyperoxic conditions (85-90% O2 conc.) in an airtight chamber for 3 days. Bone-marrow derived macrophages infected with L. pneumophila were also kept in hyperoxic conditions. Caspase activity and cytokine production were determined by using commercially available kits. Smaller increases of several apoptosis markers, such as caspase-3 and -8, were demonstrated in Fas-deficient mice, even though the bacterial burdens in Fas-deficient and wild type mice were similar. Bone-marrow derived macrophages from Fas-deficient mice were shown to be more resistant to Legionella-induced cytotoxicity than those from wild-type mice under hyperoxia. These results demonstrated that Fas-mediated signaling and apoptosis may be a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumonia in the setting of hyperoxia.
    BMC Research Notes 04/2011; 4:107. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-4-107
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